Transgenic Wheat for Drought Stress Tolerance: A Review
Keywords:Wheat, water stress tolerance, transgenic crops, molecular breeding, biotechnology
Wheat occupies the first place in terms of strategic and nutritional importance globally, as it represents the main food for all the peoples of the earth, as well as being a high nutritional value fodder for animals and birds alike. In light of drought stress crisis and the limited irrigation water, we find that the areas specified for wheat cultivation are in constant decline besides, the problem of increasing population, it is noted that the process of providing wheat necessary for the bread industry takes on the priority of the strategic challenges facing the Egyptian state. In this regard, water stress is considered one of the most important and dangerous environmental obstacles that greatly limit and destroy agricultural production not only at locally but also at the globally. Also, drought stress reduces the final output of any crop by up to 50 % besides, the highly average temperatures at the same time especially in areas classified as scarce or water-poor like the Arab Republic of Egypt which exacerbates the problem. Therefore, these two environmental factors are enough to eliminate the future of agriculture in generally and in wheat in particular. This a review attempts to shed light and focus on the most important genetically, physiological and biochemical responses related to water stress tolerance in transgenic wheat. Further, these changes are considered as the main gateway on which studies and research in the production of genetically modified wheat are based to confront the problem of water shortage.
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