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October-December, 2020

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Management of Furrow Irrigation Technology and Its Risk Assessments: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., Yassen A.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A. and Hammad S.A.,

ABSTRACT: The effective way to resolve the shortage of agricultural irrigation water resources is the research and application of new water-saving technology of surface irrigation in Egypt. Surface irrigation is the most common executed irrigation due to its low cost, no special technical experience regarding operation, maintenance and specific equipment are required Furrow irrigation is most widely used among the surface irrigation methods. Applying by small channels or furrows, which follow a uniform longitudinal slope. Efficiency of furrow has low application due to its high water loss through surface runoff, evaporation from water in the furrow itself, evaporation from the soil surface and percolation below root zone. Alternate furrow irrigation is a system of irrigating only one side of the plant, i.e., half of the root system, is irrigated at first irrigation event, while the other side receiving water next time. Two advanced water-saving irrigation technologies for improving ground irrigation technology and the precision surface irrigation technology for improving water use efficiency. Application of the these technologies, may improve the irrigation management and the quality of surface irrigation, obtain the effect of save water and increase production, promote the development of modern agriculture in Egypt, Furrow bed is the most efficient traditional surface irrigation method. The main reasons being attributed to lack of knowledge of furrow bed design, installation and management. Egypt is a major irrigated agricultural country with more than 90% of crop production coming from irrigated areas. Either irrigation water available at farm gates from surface or groundwater resources are more precious, thus demands a more efficient use. However, unfortunately more than 50% of this water is lost due to poor irrigation management practices on farms. Flooding, flat basin and irregular and unleveled border irrigation methods are the norms on majority of farms, which is inherently inefficient. Irrigation technologies such as drip, sub drip are costly and require knowledge that is more technical, thus, negligibly adopted and are generally considered as late time solutions. Although furrow bed irrigation, a relatively more efficient irrigation method, has been adopted, especially for row crops but decision support guidelines for their appropriate installation and management is very limited, thus, potential benefits of furrow beds are yet to be achieved consequently; water productivity of major crops is below global. We consider sustainability to be achieved when irrigation and drainage are conducted on-farm, and within irrigation districts, that does not degrade the quality of land, water, and other natural resources. Describing as maintaining the productive resources required for irrigation, therefore, generations may have the same opportunity to use those resources as we do. Adoption of this strategy may enhanced by policies that require farmers, and irrigation districts, to consider the off-farm impacts of irrigation and drainage. Review illustrating some key guidelines for the appropriate installation and
management of furrow bed irrigation method on farms, that may increase decision support and furthermore, increasing water productivity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 590-616 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.51

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Impact of Drenching of Propylene Glycol during the early postpartum period on the response of Primiparous Holstein cows to ovsynch

Aboshnaf A.R., M.M. Hussein, A.G.M. Hasan and R.L. Abdel Aziz

ABSTRACT: The specific objective was to determine the possible influences of drenching Propylene Glycol (PrGl) at the early postpartum period on circulating levels of progesterone during ovsynch protocol and risk of pregnancy establishment in primiparous Holstein cows. Animals (n=45) were classified into a control group which did not receive any dietary supplementation (n=20) and PrGl group (n=25) where individual cows received once daily 250 mg PrGl drench starting from day of calving till day 30 postpartum. On day 60 postpartum, individual cows of both groups were submitted to ovsynch program and were timely inseminated. Serum samples as well as ovarian examination using ultrasonography were carried out on two occasions, on day seven of ovsynch at PGF2 alpha and at timed artificial insemination (TAI). Serum samples were assayed for progesterone. Results showed that PrGl drenching did not affect daily milk production, BCS of cows at synchronization as well as pregnancy rate after ovsynch (40 vs. 35% in PrGl and control cows, respectively). Regardless of treatment, cows with low progesterone at TAI had higher PR/TAI. When circulating progesterone levels were divided into quartiles, cows within the first quartile at TAI had nearly five folds greater PR/TAI, when compared to those within the forth quartile (70 vs. 14.5%, respectively). Further, treated and control cows had nearly similar size of CL at PGF2 alpha and pre-ovulatory follicle (POF) size at TAI. The size of CL at PGF2 alpha did not vary between pregnant and non-pregnant cows, regardless of treatment, however, pregnant cows had significantly higher POF size (1.58±0.25 cm) than control cows (1.39±0.27 cm). In conclusion, drenching of PrGl during the first 30 days postpartum for primiparous dairy cows did not affect their response to ovsynch. In addition, higher sizes of POF as well as lower levels of circulating progesterone at TAI were associated with greater PR/TAI.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 617-621 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.52

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Quantitative and qualitative effects of different silver nanoparticles concentrations on the pathogenicity and reproductive of root-knot nematode, M. incognita infecting susceptible sugarbeet variety

Gohar I.M.A., Elshaimaa A.E. Mohamed, Nader R. Abdelsalam and Amera F. Zaitoun

ABSTRACT: Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) is the most economically valuable crop species in the order Caryophyllales. Root knot nematodes interrupt the physiology of the plant and able to cause economic importance great losses in production and quality of sugarbeet crop. Chemical nematicides are usually preferred for their effective control; the problems associated with nematicides application turned the workers vision to focus new alternative agents for nematode management programs. In this study, High throughput microcrystalline cellulose decorated silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by different concentrations were evaluated as a nematicidal substance in outdoors pots experiment. The chosen tested concentrations were 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 ppm/ml of Ag-NPs with four replicates/ each concentration along with two methods of application [one time application (AT1) and application two times (AT2)], applied to sugarbeet pots infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Applying Ag-NPs directly to infested sugarbeet pots achieved significant suppression at p ≤ 0.05 of root-knot nematode, M. incognita in terms of reducing numbers in soil, reproductive factor, and knot disease severity%. Efficacy % that related to untreated pots and relative efficacy% that proportionated to pots treated with Ethoprop 10% G get higher potential as of Ag-NPs of concentrations get higher. Time of application AT2 enhanced the efficacy of Ag-NPs at low concentration (under 50 ppm/ml) and occasionally above 50 ppm/ml. Effects of different Ag-NPs concentrations and times of application on yield components i.e. Root yield plant-1(g), Top yield plant-1(g) and sugar yield plant-1(g) of infested sugarbeet plant with root-knot nematode, M. incognita, were related to degree of Ag-NPs concentration to suppress nematodes activity. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs increased yield components i.e. Root yield plant-1(g), Top yield plant-1(g) and sugar yield plant-1(g) even at low concentration (20 ppm/ml) in comparison with control treatment (0.0 ppm/ml). The same trend for quality as sucrose, total soluble solids (T.S.S) and purity percentages of sugarbeet infested with root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in pots experiment. Avoidable loss percentage in roots and sugar yields plant-1(g) as an economic expression responded positively to different levels of Ag-NPs concentrations and to time of application AT2 in low concentration ˂50 ppm/ml. This study has demonstrated a potential environmentally friendly alternative for the management of the root-knot nematodes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 622-637 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.53

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Integration between Antagonistic Fungi and Bacteria for Controlling of Peanut Pod Rot Incidence and Occurrence of Aflatoxigenic fungi

Zeinab N. Hussien and Ahmed M. Gomaa

ABSTRACT: Peanuts are infected with many diseases affecting the productivity, especially pod rot diseases caused by many fungi as well as aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which conceder a major health and food safety problem in the worldwide. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis were tested alone and in combinations for their effect as biocontrol against peanut pod rot pathogenes (Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii) and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus). The fungal and bacterial isolates which have not to reverse effect between them were used in this study. In vitro studies, the highest antagonistic effect against the tested pathogenic fungi was shown by P. fluorescens followed by T. viride (Tv 5) and B. subtilis. In greenhouse and field experiments the isolets of selscted biocontrol againt beside standard consisting of fungicide (Rizolex-T) were evaluated for peanut pod rots as well as incidence of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and peanut aflatoxin contaminations. In this respect, all tested biocontrol agents and their mixture had a significant effect in reducing peanut pod rots incidence compared to the control. Pseudomonas fluorescens alone was superior followed by T. viride (Tv 5) and B. subtilis in reducing of peanut pod rots incidence. While the mixture of P. fluorescens and T. viride (Tv 5) gives the best effect in reducing of peanut pod rots incidence compared to other treatments and their effect was the nearest one to Rizolex-T effect in reduction of diseases incidence. Regard to aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination, isolates of A. flavus were more invasive to peanut pod than A. parasiticus. The most effective treatment was the mixture of P. fluorescens and T. viride (Tv 5) which gave the least incidence of A. flavus and A. parasiticus and reduced preharvest aflatoxins contamination compared to other treatments including fungicide. The highest pod yield obtained with the mixture of T. viride (Tv 5) and B. subtills, followed by T. viride (Tv 5) and P. fluorescens compared with other biocontrol agents while Rizolex-T gave the highest pod yield at all in the two seasons 2017 and 2018. This study conclusion that, the application of more than one antagonists of diverse origin consider a reliable means of reducing diseases and increasing the reliability of biological control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 638-648 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.54

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Clinical study on ruminal disorders in cow

Galbat S. A.

ABSTRACT: Thirty five adult native breed Egyptian cattle were introduced to a privet clinic suffering from ruminal disorders. The animals were divided into three groups, based on clinical signs and ruminal ph. The number of diseased cases with severe ruminal acidosis was fifteen, while the animals suffering from simple indigestion were twelve and those with ruminal tympany were eight. In addition, five clinically adult caws were used as control. Most cases with ruminal indigestion showed partial or complete anorexia, loss of body condition, abdominal pain, cessation of rumination and abdominal distension. Such signs differ according to the disease condition. Ruminal samples and blood samples were collected from all animals and transferred to the laboratory for biophysical and hematological analyses. All samples collected from diseased cases showed changes in the rumen microbial activity. All cases with ruminal dysfunction showed reduction in values and percentages of total and differential protozoal count. Hematological parameters Such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte, Leucocyte and differential counts were performed. A significant increase in pulse and respiratory rates and significant decrease in rumen motility was observed in both acidosis and tympany. Rumen pH decreased significantly in acidosis and simple indigestion and increase in ruminal tympany. In rumen liquor the protozoal count, motility and activities were significantly reduced. Increased PCV was seen in both acidosis and tympany.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 649-656 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.55

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Comparison between using phosphine and/or carbon dioxide for controlling Plodia interpunctella and Oryzaephilus surinamensis in stored date fruits

El-Shafei W.K.M

ABSTRACT: This experiment aimed to evaluate the use of CO2 and phosphine gas, each alone and mixed together, in controlling Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) which infesting stored date fruits. The study also aimed to evaluate the effect of using these gases on the chemical properties and quality of the treated date fruits. Three concentrations of CO2 (50, 75 and 100%) were tested to control the two insects for different exposure
times ranged from 1 to 36 hrs. The obtained results showed that the corrected mortality percentage of the two tested insects increased by increasing the exposure time in each of the three CO2 concentrations, and or increasing of the concentration. The corrected mortality percentages of P. interpunctella and O. surinamensis reached 100% after exposure to CO2 (50, 75 &100%) for exposure periods (36, 24 &16 hrs.) respectively. For phosphine gas five concentrations were tested (0.073, 0.146, 0.292, 0.585 and 1.170 g.) of magnesium phosphide .The results of phosphine showed that the corrected mortality percentage of the two tested insects increased by increasing the concentration of phosphine, Where the corrected mortality percentages recorded (36.67, 53.33, 66.67, 83.33 and 100%) for P. interpunctella larvae, and (23.33, 36.67, 50.00, 66.67 and 100% ) for O. surinamensis adults when exposed to the mentioned phosphine concentrations. When LC50 of CO2 was mixed with LC50 of phosphine, the mortality percentages of the two tested insects increased and reached the maximum 100% by using the mixture containing (CO2 + phosphine) Such level of mortality could be never obtained when CO2 or phosphine was used each alone at these concentrations. Thus, we reduced the amount of phosphine gas used and increased its efficiency. Data showed clearly that P. interpunctella larvae was more susceptible to the two tested gases alone or mixed than the adults of O. surinamensis. The results showed that the gases used in the experiment had no effect on the chemical properties of the treated date fruits compared to the control, especially the mixture of gases, except in the case of treatment with carbon dioxide and phosphine gas, both of them separately, which only increased the total phenols in the fruits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 657-664 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.56

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Relationship between climatic indicators and some physiological stages of navel orange trees in West Delta, Egypt

Manal A. Zaky

ABSTRACT: Field investigations, were performed during two successive growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to assess the suitability of a region for growing navel orange, also to estimate the length of various phenological stages and to predict suitable time for maturity of navel orange by using heat units requirement for this cultivar. The chosen Washington navel orange trees (Citrus sinensis L.) Osbek, budded on sour orange rootstock were ten-year-old, spaced at 5 × 5 meters and grown in clay soil, under flooding irrigation system in a private orchard located at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. The results showed that each phonological stage (root activation, spring flush, flowering and color break) as well as the actual starting dates for each phase recorded more heat units in the second season than the first season, subsequently, the starting dates of each phase was earlier in the second season than first season except in case of color break. With respect to correlation between fibrous root growth and the temperature during both studied seasons, it is obvious that there was strong correlation between either number or weight of roots and soil temperature in both studied seasons. Regarding yield and fruit quality attribute, it is apparent that yield and fruit quality attribute were affected by the changes in the climatic conditions for each season.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 665-672 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.57

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Influence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and its Mycotoxin Citrinin on Haemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål)

E.M. Rashad, S.S. Rashed, G. A. Helal and F.M. Hashem

ABSTRACT: The influence of entomopathogenic fungi, Penicillium aurantiogriseum and its mycotoxin citrinin against the haemolymph of the 5th instar nymphs of Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) were studied under laboratory conditions. This study aims to detect the changes of some biochemical parameters of haemolymph which are valuable in evaluating and predicting the pathogenic effect on S. gregaria. Results showed an effect of P. aurantiogriseum and its mycotoxin citrinin on haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity and haemolymph protein at 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th days post application. Comparison between the two treatments revealed fluctuations in the mean total haemocyte count and detection of plasmatocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes in different percentages in treated nymphs. Citrinin mycotoxin and P. aurantiogriseum disturbed the titre of phenoloxidase enzyme in all intervals after infection. Also, they decreased the total haemolymph protein content significantly during the five days post infection as compared to the control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 673-682 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.58

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Usage of Cassava Tubers in Bread Production Technology

A.S. Nadir, A.A. Hala and S.A. Sara

ABSTRACT: Egypt is the largest wheat importer globally, the government is aiming to find alternatives to reduce wheat imports and to cultivate reclaimed lands. Comparative studies were conducted to investigate the effect of substituting portions of wheat flour with cassava flour at levels starting from 20% to75%, on chemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of the Egyptian balady bread that is currently produced from wheat only and to enhance its nutritional and baking quality. Substituting wheat with 30% cassava gave the highest carbohydrate content, didn’t change any of the rheological properties and no significant difference was noticed between wheat flour and 30% cassava in all sensory tests. Substituting wheat with 40% cassava resulted in elevating protein, fat and fiber percentages than that of other samples. 75%cassava is acceptable and appropriate in terms of their flavor. Wherefore, we
recommend expanding cassava cultivation in Egypt due to its acceptability, suitability to the Egyptian environment, health benefits and more importantly its high carbohydrate and fiber contents.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 683-692 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.59

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Seasonal Fluctuations of the Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae (L.) and its Natural Enemies on Cabbage in Middle Egypt

Halima M. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted at Naser fields in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt in the growing seasons 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 to study the population fluctuations of the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae (L.) and its associated parasitoid and predatory species in cabbage plantations. P. rapae has from three to four generations per season on cabbage. Five primary parasitoid species; Trichogramma buesi V., Cotesia glomerata (L.), Hyposoter ebeninus Grav., Brachymeria femorata Panz and Pteromalus puparum L. were found parasitizing on the developmental stages of this pest. The predator Chrysoperla carnea Stephens, was recorded. Combined effect of three weather factors on the population density of P. rapae was studied.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 693-697 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.60

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Analysis of Village Extension Workers’ Capabilities in Producing Electronic Media for Extension Education in Imo State, Nigeria

Emerhirhi E., F.N. Nnadi and E.O. Okoroma

ABSTRACT: The dearth of Village Extension Workers (VEWs) who have requisite skills and competencies in the production of electronic media for extension education in the study area has remained the bane of effective extension education, particularly to rural clientele who are constrained by literacy to communicate. Hence, the study analyzed the capabilities of Village Extension Workers’ to produce electronic media for extension education in Imo State. Specifically, the study examined the level to which VEWs are trained in electronic media production; assessed the capabilities of the VEWs to produce electronic media; as well as assessed the relationship between the training given to VEWs and the capabilities of VEWs to produce electronic media. Data were collected from 120 sampled extension personnel using structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using mean, standard deviation and Z-test. The results show that electronic media production skills taught in extension were inadequate as only 4 out of the 16 requisite skills areas understudied were taught to VEWs. The result also revealed that the average extension worker lacked the capability (�� �� =0.6) to produce electronic media. At 5% Significantg level, the result showed that the training given to the VEWs on electronic production did not differ with the capabilities of the VEWs to produce electronic media (Z-cal =1.93; Z-tab =1.96).
The study concluded that VEWs in the study area lacked the capabilities to produce electronic media for extension education, and therefore recommended a review of extension pre-service and in-service training curriculum towards making it more robust and effective in equipping VEWs with the knowledge and skills needed to leverage the media for effective extension education.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 698-702 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.61

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Integrated management of onion pink root rot caused by Setophoma terrestris

Mahmoud E.Y., Zeinab N. Hussien and M.M. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Due to the high environmental risks of fungicides, biological control of plant diseases with bio-factor are highly encouraged and recommended as well as trying to use natural products such as oils and plant extracts as alternatives to fungicides. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis, when applied as soil treatment in combination with different concentrations of essential plant oils as dipping treatment on onion pink rot disease. Oils of cumin, cardamom and thyme were tested at five concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, 1%, 2%, and 4%), on the linear growth of Setophoma (Pyrenochaeta) terrestris isolates. Thyme oil had the strongest inhibitory effect on linear growth followed by cumin oil. Moreover, the reduction of linear growth increased by increasing concentration of the tested essential plant oils. Under artificial and natural infection conditions in greenhouse and field trials, when applying B. subtilis with essential plant oils at different concentrations led to significantly effect in reducing incidence of onion pink root rot, compared with untreated control. Also, all tested treatments increased fresh and dry weight under greenhouse conditions as well as increased onion bulb yield in field trials. Data also clearly showed that, there is a positive significant relationship between increase of plant oils concentrations and increase their effect on the incidence of onion pink root rot. Generally, thyme oil at 4% with B. subtilis followed by cumin at 4% with B. subtilis gave the highest percentage of healthy plants as well as the highest efficacy in reducing onion pink root rot compared to other treatments. These results suggest that, one of the means to achieve the goal of sustainable agriculture in controlling of onion pink root rot disease alongside improving onion productivity can be achievement by using of these environmentally safe treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 703-714 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.62

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Response of red roomy grapevines to spray of orthophosphoric acid and copper sulphate

Mansour A.E.M., Laila F. Hagagg, M.A. Merwad and M.S. El-Shamma

ABSTRACT: In a private vineyard located at Aga district, Dakahlia Governorate, forty two head trained Red Roomy grapevines 17 years old to study the effect of four sprays of orthophosphoric acid and /or copper sulphate each at 0.1 or 0 .2 % on yield and quality of Red Roomy grapes during 2018 and 2019 seasons. Results showed that single or combined application of such two fertilizers was very effective in improving berry set, yield as well as physical and chemical properties of the berries. Meaningless effect on such parameters was observed due to raising their concentrations from 0.1 to 0.2 %. Spraying orthophosphoric acid surpassed the application of copper sulphate on improving the productivity of the vines. For obtaining the highest economical yield and improving quality of berries, it is recommended to spray Red Roomy grapevines with orthophosphoric acid plus copper sulphate four times at .1 % per each. The relative increases in yield/vine were about 89.6 and 123.0% for spraying orthophosphoric acid with copper sulphate each at 0.1% than unsprayed vines in the 2018 and 2019 seasons, respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 715-720 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.63

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Rhizo-microbiota are among the pillars for proper canola (Brassica napus L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production in marginal soil

Mona M. Aly, Heba SH. Shehata, I.M. Elareny, Doaa M. Khalifa and H.M.A. El- Tapey

ABSTRACT: A field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, through agricultural growing seasons (2015-2016, winter season) and (2016 summer season) to evaluate some biological treatments by mixture of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum), mixture of fungi (Pleurotus columbinus and Trichoderma harzianum) and mixture of cyanobacteria (Wollea saccata and Spirulina platensis) individually or in combination on growth and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants grown in sandy soil, in addition to studies on their effects on some soil properties. Generally, the mixture of bacteria and cyanobacteria was more effective in increasing growth parameters of canola and sesame plants compared to other treatments. Inoculation of canola and sesame plants by mixture of bacteria and cyanobacteria gave significant enhancement in chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids production. Biological activities in terms of dehydrogenase, CO2 and root colonization were significantly affected by the biological treatments. The previous determination recorded the highest values in combination between mixture of bacteria and cyanobacteria. The mixture of bacteria and cyanobacteria gave the highest significant values of seed yield kg fed-1, weight of 1000 seed and oil percentage for canola and sesame plants. Generally, the results showed that the mixture of bacteria was better than either mixture of fungi or cyanobacteria treatments. Biological treatments enhanced the physical properties of soil, the highest increased values of soil aggregation, percentage of total porosity, water holding pores (28.8 – 0.19 μ), and fine capillary pores (<0.19μ) were in inoculation with the mixture of bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria followed by mixture of fungi and cyanobacteria, while the lowest values obtained from the separate mixture of each one. Meanwhile, the macro pores (>28.8μ) significantly decreased at the same previous treatments. Bulk density showed no differences between treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 721-736 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.64

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Mapping and Lithological discrimination using digital image processing and radioactive investigations of Wadi Um Gheig area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

Bayoumi M.B. and B.M. Emad

ABSTRACT: The present study aims to create the geological map of Wadi Um Giegh area by applying different image processing techniques for Landsat- 8 ETM+ satellite, airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey and geological investigations to discriminate between the differently exposed lithological units. The mapping approach developed and applied in this study integrates resulted images from processed Landsat- 8 ETM+ data and field data sets to produce a map showing the alteration zones at study area. The processed digital data of Landsat- 8 ETM+ covering the study area have been used. Several products of Landsat-8 ETM+ digital data such as (7, 4 and 1 in RGB), false color composite images (8, 6, 1 in RGB) and (3, 2, 1 in RGB). Band rationing images (4/2, 5/4, 7/5), (6/7, 6/2, 4/2) and (5/7) are generated. Products of image processing improve lithological discrimination especially of serpentines, volcanics, metagabbro and granitic rocks and different varieties of intrusive rocks. The analysis of the gamma-ray spectrometric data, reveals that, there is an increase in the eTh content from 1.34 to 15.68 ppm. Whilst, the eU content increases from 0.17 to 7.84 ppm, the K%-content with an average of about 1.36 %, eU/eTh from 0.09 to 0.64 with an average 0.4 and eTh/eU from 1.57 to 11.41 with an average of 2.80. So, the different rock units of Wadi Um Giegh area are enriched in uranium. The eU-(eTh/3.5) reaches 3.43 ppm over the rhyolite rocks and diminishes to (-0.40) ppm at the same rocks. This indicates that, the uranium migration (leach out) in these rocks less than the (leaching in). The granites at Wadi Um Giegh area show low degree of fractionation suggesting a source for further hydrothermal or supergene concentrations. Therefore, this study area is considered to be of low Ufavourablty. The calculated dose rates in the study area, ranging between 0.1 and 1.1 mSv/year, which indicate that the study area as a whole remains in the safe side and under the maximum permissible safe radiation dose rate without harm to the individual, except over the rhyoitic rocks which exceeds the safe limit (1.0 mSv/y).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 737-754 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.65

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Replacement of Sodium Chloride by Potassium Chloride in Armenian Cucumber“Cucumis melo Var. Flexuosu” Pickles: Sensory and Microbiological Evaluation

Zainab A. Mahdi, Ali M. Al-Khatib, Bassam N. Fneich

ABSTRACT: Pickles are considered as high salt food mainly due to the presence of high sodium ions added for taste and preservation purposes. This high amount will increase the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, an attempt was done to replace Sodium chloride (NaCl) by salt replacer which is potassium chloride (KCl) in Armenian cucumber pickles. Nine treatments were done with different salts percentages with and without chili pepper and garlic. All treatments were incubated at room temperature for 4 weeks then pH measurement, sensory analysis, and microbial analysis were performed. The pH values decreased with incubation and the lowest pH was 3.53±0.03 for Treatment 4 (75% KCl, 25%NaCl). Treatment 4 showed the highest reduction in both total plate count and yeast count with 78.5±3.0×103 CFU/ml and 73.0±3.0×102 CFU/ml respectively. There were virtually undetectable changes in taste up to 70% KCl (Treatment 6) substitution compared to Treatment 1(100% NaCl) based on the triangle test results. Based on 5-point hedonic scale, the lowest scores for taste were for Treatment 5 (100% KCl) with 2.70±0.40 but they were higher in the samples that contain chili pepper, while the other treatments showed insignificant differences compared to Treatment 1.The different treatments did not show any significant changes with respect to texture based on 5-point hedonic scale except the samples that contain both garlic and chili pepper which showed the lowest scores for taste and texture.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 755-761 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.66

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Role of Rhizobium, Organic fertilizer rates and Sulfur on Soil fertility, Nitrogen Balance and productivity of Broad Bean under South Sinai Conditions

Elsagan M.A.M., Rashed M.F. Suzan and Mona M.El-Shazly

ABSTRACT: Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N2 to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. The efficiency of Rhizobium leguminosarum in enhancing nitrogen fixation and nutrient uptake in Faba bean and improving soil fertility. the field experiment were carried out at privet farm at tour city South Sinai Governorate, during the two consecutive winter seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of Rhizobium leguminosarum inoculation, organic manure, soil amendment i.e., 0; 25; 30 and 35m³/fed., and four rates of sulfur application i.e., 0; 100; 150 and 200 kg/fed., on growth, productivity, nodulation, soil microbial counts, enzymatic activities, soil total N, P, K, Fe, Zn and Mn, soil chemical properties (pH and EC) and Nitrogen balance of broad bean, Aspany F1 cv. grown under sandy soil conditions. Results revealed that organic manure at the rate of 30m³/fed which is superior significantly plant yield and total yield (ton/fed) followed by organic manure at the rate of 35m³/fed. No significant differences occurred between these two organic treatments in both seasons. Sulfur amendment at the rate of 200 kg/fed followed by the rate of 150 kg/fed had the highest values and significant increases on plant weight; number of branches/plant; plant yield; total yield (ton/fed), there are no significant differences between both treatments in both growing seasons. While, each of the study factors had an individual significant effect on total microbial counts, enzymatic activities (Dehydrogenase and Nitrogenase), nodule No., nodule N%, nodule dry weigh, soil total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Fe, Zn and Mn, soil chemical properties (pH and EC) and Nitrogen balance. But combined treatment organic manure 35m³/fed + sulfur at the rate of 200 kg/fed with rhizobial inoculation gave highest values on all most traits in both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 762-779 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.67

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Influence of different chromium applications on vegetative growth and chemical constituents of Tilia cordata seedlings

Rawia A. Eid, Hashish, Kh. I., Azza A.M. Mazhar and Nahed G. Abd El Aziz

ABSTRACT: The experimental trials were carried out during two successive seasons, 2018 and 2019 at green house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of different chromium concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm) on vegetative growth and chemical constituents of Tilia cordata seedlings. Chromium (Cr) at low concentration (20) significantly increased all growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems and roots) as well as chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, carbohydrates and nutrient elements in leaves, stems and roots. But chromium at high concentrations (40, 60 and 80 ppm) significantly decreased all growth characters. Additionally, the same results were obtained on carbohydrates, nitrogen, potassium percentage in leaves, stems and roots and pigment content in leaves. On the contrary, chromium contents in all plant organs increased by increasing (Cr) concentrations. It could be recommended to use chromium concentration at 20 ppm to induce the growth parameters and some chemical compositions of Tilia cordata.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 780-784 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.68

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Response of Jerusalem artichoke Plants to Organic Fertilizers and Humic Acid in Reclaimed Soil at South Egypt

Mohamed H.E.

ABSTRACT: This work was carried out during the two successive summer seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Sohag Governorate, Egypt under reclaimed soil to study the interaction between organic manure and humic acid application methods on the productivity, growth, yield and its components as well as the chemical tubers content of Jerusalem artichoke plants. This study included 12 treatments which were the combinations between four rates of organic manure (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton/fed) and three humic application methods (spraying, soil addition and both of them together). The obtained results indicated that, the organic manure at rate 15 ton/fed gained the highest plant, No. of stems/plant, fresh weight/plant, total yield, average tuber weight and dry matter of tuber percentage as well as, chemical contained of NPK and inulin in tubers compared to other rates in both seasons. Application of humic acid increased the most parameters under this study in both seasons. Spraying humic acid + soil application given superior results in most parameters compared to spraying or soil addition as sole treatment. The interaction between organic manure rates and humic acid applications significantly affected growth, yield and its components. The best treatment observed in this study was blend of organic manure application at rate of 15 ton/fed. with the use of humic acid as spraying plus soil addition treatment in most studied parameters in both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 785-791 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.69

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Kaolin And Irrigation Intervals Affect Growth And Essential Oil Of Sweet Basil.

Rania M.R. Khater and Esam A. A. Al-Azzony

ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted at the experimental at Baluza Research Station, Desert Research Center located at, North Sinai governorates during two consecutive seasons (2018 and 2019). Sweet basil plants were subjected to different irrigation intervals (every 3, 6 and 9 days) and various levels of kaolin (0, 2 and 4 cm3/l). The experimental design followed a split plot design. Growth characters and essential oil composition were measured. The results obtained explained, the irrigation intervals affected all the characteristics positively, as all the growth characteristics increased, and the increase was significant and the best treatment was when irrigating at a rate of 3 days. In addition to that, the different concentrations of kaolin resulted in a significant effect on the productivity of basil plants, as the best treatment was when spraying kaolin at a rate of 4 cm / l. As for the interaction between irrigation intervals and spraying with kaolin, it led to a significant increase in all characters such as plant height (cm), dry weight of leaves (g/plant or ton/ feddan), essential oil (%, ml/plant and liter/feddan), and essential oil constituents ( linalool and estragole) when treatment 6 days + spraying kaolin 4cm/l .

[ FULL TEXT PDF 792-802 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.70

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Utilization of Popcorn for Gluten Free Cake and Cookies Manufacturing

Manal S. Helal and Haiat M.N. Afifi

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the main task of food producers is to make new tasty gluten-free products with an elevated nutritive value to enrich the menu of celiac patients. One of such products could be sweets, such as cake and cookies. Therefore, unpuffing popcorn flour (raw popcorn flour RPF), puffing popcorn corn flour (PPF) and a mixture (1:1) from them, in addition to corn flour as a control sample, were used to prepare gluten-free cake and cookies formulas. The lowest amylose content (19.81 %) of corn flour followed by raw popcorn flour (22.97%) and popped popcorn (24.95 %). Gluten free cake prepared from popped popcorn (PPF) recorded the highest volume (395 cm3), weight (201.51 g), height (6.63 cm) and specific volume (2.22 cm3/g), while gluten free cake prepared from PPF had the lowest values which were 367.33 cm3, 185.42 g, 4.75 cm and 1.94 cm3/g, respectively. The highest Fracturability was recorded in the control (65.25 N) while the lowest value (53.48 N ) was recorded in PPF cookies. Thus, the higher cake expansion and in turn higher specific volume would be an expected product of popping process. The lowest rate of Hardness values was noticed after storage period (5 days) in PPF cake samples. Rate of chewiness, gumminess and resilience also were the lowest values in PPF cake samples. Generally, PPF based cookies (cake prepared from popped popcorn) were more acceptable as it had the highest overall acceptability sensory attributes in both prepared cake and cookies.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 803-814 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.71

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Studies on use of some types of fertilizers and sesame oil in controlling thrips insect and obtain high quality garlic

EL-Anany A. M. A., T. G. Anany, E.A.M. Mousa and Mona. I. Ammar

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted at kaha Research Farm, Horticultural Research Institute, Egypt during the two agricultural season of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 to study the effect of organic fertilizers (poultry manure) and sesame oil in controlling thrips insects and its effect on growth, yield and quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) cv. Sids 40. Poultry manure application with spraying sesame oil extract showed a significant increase on most studied traits. The highest increment was observed with applying poultry manure plus 150 kg sulphur as fertilizer using sesame oil spray for all vegetative traits except fresh weight (1st season), dry weight (2nd season), chlorophyll (both seasons) in which marshal 25% insecticide was the highest one, in the same time, this treatment gave an increase significantly equal to the treatment that produced the highest value in all studied yield and its attributed traits as well as bulb chemical constituents. As the sulfur level increased from 75 kg to 150 kg (under all spraying treatments), OF × BioC interaction showed a significant increase in most studied traits. The population of thrips reached to a peak level 336 and 462 thrips/plant for mineral and organic fertilizers, respectively at 4th week of March (24th week after planting date). Then the thrips population fluctuated between increase and decrease till 200 (mineral fertilization) and 416 (organic fertilization) thrips/plant. Although, the organic and mineral fertilizers treated by chemical insecticide did not leave any insects on the plant (100% reduction), the total yield of the organic treatment interacted with sesame oil (OFBioC) was significantly equal to yield of mineral or organic fertilizer interacted with chemical insecticide. It was also noticed that this treatment (OFBioC) significantly exceeded the bulb fresh weight and the number of cloves per plant, while it was significantly equal with both diameter and weight of garlic clove compared to the treatment of mineral fertilization plus the chemical insecticide. It is believed that this is due to the effect of the sesame oil (in manure treatment) as a catalyst and enhancer for the garlic plant in resisting the presence of the insect and reducing the harm or, on the other hand inhibiting the insect activity in causing any harm (rather than being an insecticide) confirming the role of sesame oil as an enhancer and/or antioxidant for garlic plant more than an effect on the thrips insect. Our results also suggested the bulb quality as an organic seeds were the main drivers of long-term our study.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 815-834 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.72

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The Role of Nano Silver with Sucrose on Longevity of Cut Flowers of Zinnia in Vase

Ola Awad Amin, Magdy Azmy Barsoom and Zakaria Bastawy

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in the Postharvest Lab of Ornamental Plants and Landscape Gardening Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Inst., Giza, Egypt in May of 2018 and 2019 seasons, aiming to assess the efficiency of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to improve the quality of Zinnia elegans cut flowers. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that, silver nano particles at 15 mg /l + sucrose at 15 g /l treatment had strong impact in improving zinnia cut flower quality by increasing the shelf life, absorbed solutions, relative fresh weight and water balance, in addition to reducing the amount of water loss and microbial count in vase solutions of cut flowers. Moreover, this holding solution retarded the chlorophyll degradation as well as anthocyanins concentrations as well as phenolic content was increased by combination treatments between silver nanoparticles and sucrose or treatments silver nanoparticles alone during the postharvest life.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 835-846 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.73

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Enhancement of growth and yield of faba bean plants grown under sandy soil conditions by foliar spraying of different doses of yeast extract and humic acid

Hamza A.E., M.R. Shafeek, S.M. El-Sawy and Hanaa A. Abd-Alrahman

ABSTRACT: Foliar spraying is one of the critical operations in agricultural practices. In this concern two field experiments were fulfilled during two seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 under sandy soil at El- Nubaria region. The goal of this test is to discuss the vegetative growth, total yield, and chemical characteristics of broad bean plant (Vicia faba L.) cv. Spanish as influenced by foliar spraying of doses yeast extract and humic acid it was posture at once or on double doses and without yeast extract and humic acid and interaction effect on plant growth, yield, and chemical seeds characteristics. The results of plant growth parameters like plant length, number of leaves/plant, fresh weight of leaves and whole plant and the elevated total seeds yield as well as the rising content of the percentage of N, P, K and protein of broad bean seeds tissues were detected with that plants which sprayed as double doses of humic acid (4 cm/L) and double doses of yeast extract (6 ml/L) compared to one doses and without spraying.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 847-855 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.74

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Renovation of The Unused Ancient Egyptian Trenching Approach For Producing High-Yield And Quality of Watermelon With Maximizing The Irrigation Water Use Efficiency

El-Eslamboly, A.A.S.A. and Abdel-Wahab, M. A. S.

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted on an open field farm in El-Salheya El-Gedida, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt, for two successive seasons 2016 and 2017. As an attempt for water conservation in watermelon cultivation and maximization the irrigation water use efficiency by improving the old unused method of watermelon production in Egypt in addition to, using watermelon grafting on some tolerant rootstocks to water stress. This experiment consisted of 15 treatments (3 cultivation approach of watermelon (rainfed (traditional trenches without irrigation), beds (rows) with drip irrigation according calculated irrigation requirement by CLIMWAT 2.0 and CROPWAT 8.0 software (2320.7m 3 ) and renovated method (Trenches with drip by 40% from calculated irrigated requirements (928.28m 3 ) × 5 grafting treatments (4 rootstocks bottle gourd and Emphasis hybrid F 1 (Lagenaria siceraria), Shintosa
F 1 hybrid and Ferro RZ F 1 hybrid (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata) and Aswan F 1 without grafting). The experiment layout was a factorial in strip plot with randomized complete blocks design with three replicates. Planting methods were set in the main strip plot whereas the grafting treatments were set randomly in sub plot. This study was succeeded in producing high yield quantities of watermelon under the conditions of water regime (40%) that were almost equal with the yield under the complete water supply requirements conditions (100%). This result was evidently from the absence of significant differences between the average yield of the two methods, which was significantly higher than the average yield of the traditional trenching method (without irrigation). The renovated trenches improved the quality characteristics of watermelon fruits compared with the traditional trench yield. Grafting on different rootstocks improved all vegetative growth traits and led to an enhancement in the yield components, this was obviously in the significant increase in the vegetative growth values, which reflected by dependency on the yield quantity and quality. The use of both trenches method equipped with the drip irrigation system with grafting on tolerant rootstocks to water shortage led to an increase in the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUS), as it led to doubling the values of (IWUS) compared to the beds with drip irrigation according the calculated water requirements by this Software. In Conclusion, to get the highest yield and quality with maximizing of the (IWUE) on watermelon, it could be recommended to use the renovated trench method equipped with drip irrigation system plus grafting on tolerant rootstocks.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 856-876 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.75

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Effect of Bio and Inoroganic Fertilization on Growth and Yield of Some Sugar Cane Varieties

Abd El- Azez Y.M., B.A. Hassouua and S.H. Fathi

ABSTRACT: Field experiment was carried out at Mallawi Agriculture Research Station, Minia Governorate, (latitude of 28° N, latitude of 30° E and latitude of 49 m above sea level ) Egypt, during the two successive seasons (2016/2017and 2017/2018). To study the effect of addition of bio fertilizer (Azotobacter chroccocum) and different levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (Three rates of N fertilizer 100%,75% and 50% of recommended dose RD) on stalk diameter, stalk length, stalk weight, total soluble solids purity, sucrose, sugar recovery sugar yield and cane yield of three sugar cane varieties (G.99-103, G.47- 2003 and G.T.54-9) strip plot design with three reps. The results indicated that sugar cane varieties and bio fertilizer (Azotobacter chroccocum) with different levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer exhibit significant effects on all studied traits in both seasons. The variety G.99-103 recorded the highest values of stalk diameter, stalk length, stalk weight and N%, N uptake plant, N uptake fed.-1, millable cane ( ton fed-1 ) and sugar yield (ton fed-1) in both seasons, while G.T.54-9 variety recorded the highest values of total soluble solids, purity%, sucrose and sugar recovery %. The addition 75% N (160 kg N fed-1) + Azotobacter chroccocum gave the highest values in all studied characters except purity % in both seasons. The interactions between sugar cane varieties and bio fertilizer (Azotobacter chroccocum) with different levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer significantly affected on the studied traits in both seasons. Under the conditions of present work, the results suggest that planting G.99-103 variety with 160 kg N fed-1 + Azotobacter chroccocum is highly recommended to obtain the highest cane and sugar yields.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 877-889 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.76

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