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April-June 2021

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Soil assessment for agricultural uses: Case study, selected localities from Wadi Feiran basin, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt

Khaled A. Abdel- Halim, El Shawadfi T.M.M and Abd El-Maboud I.M.A.

ABSTRACT: Wadi Feiran basin lies at the southwestern part of Sinai Peninsula. The considered mega drainage pattern mainly granitic, volcanic, metamorphic, and sedimentary country rocks. The present work aims to study a numbers of parameters to evaluate the soil of Wadi Feiran for agriculture purposes. To achieve this study, thirteen soil profiles and twenty-five water samples were collected during Jan., 2020 from the studied localities and water wells along Feiran basin. All the characteristic and physicochemical parameters of soil (TDS, EC, PH, Na + , Mg +2 , Ca +2 , K + , Cl - , SO4 -2 , CaCO 3- , HCO 3- , SAR, eU, eTh, eK, eRa, Ba, Pb, Nb, V, Rb, Y, Sr, Ga, Zr, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, soil texture, soil water content and organic matter content) as well as groundwater samples were analyzed. The physicochemical parameters of the studied soils showed that, most soil texture of Wadi Feiran soil was sand (59.65% to 91.28%), it have low contents of water and organic matter (0.9-9.9 mg/L), safe limit of radioactivity eU (1-14 ppm) and moderate limits of major ions, TDS (22.4-5564.8 mg/L), PH and EC and low to moderate limit of trace elements except zirconium, barium and chromium. Therefore Wadi Feiran studied soils considered one of the most promising soil profiles for agriculture uses especially those crops that don’t need to large quantities of water due to the habit of soil texture especially at the upper and middle sectors of stream channels.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 368-383 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.30

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Structural Features and Incremental Stress History of the Granites of Wadi Dara Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

Hassan El Sundoly

ABSTRACT: Wadi Dara area, located at the North Eastern Desert of Egypt, is covered by metavolcanics, diorites, granodiorites, Dokhan volcanic, Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Brittle tectonic analysis on the younger granites of Gabal (G.) Dara and G. Umm Swassi have been carried out on 637 field measurements in 22 sites, using Win-Tensor computer program. Analysis of fault slip data revealed that 232 faults (36.4 %) are of extensional (normal), and 405 faults (63.6 %) belong to compressional and allowed computation of 78 paleostress tensors. These tensors are distinguished as 27 tensors corresponding to extensional faulting and 51 tensors corresponding to compressional faulting. The structural elements of younger granites of Gabal Dara and Gabal Umm Swassi were statistically treated and stress analyses were carried out on these structural data to delineate the paleostresses, affected the granites. These granites are subjected to four compressional and four extensional phases. The four compressional phases can be grouped into four main events as the following: E-W to WNW-ESE, NE- SW to ENE-WSW, NW-SE to NNW-SSE and N-S to NNE-SSW compressional events. While the four extensional phases can be grouped into also four main events as the following: N-S to NNE-SSW, NW- SE to NNW-SSE, NE-SW to ENE-WSW and E-W to WNW-ESE extensional event. Significant radioactive anomalies are detected in pegmatites of the younger granites, which occur along NE-SW trend. Radiometric survey for most of these pegmatites gives abnormal measurements reach up to 6000 cps with U content ranging from 600ppm to 900ppm. In these pegmatites, radioactive minerals, recognized under Scanning Electron Microscope, are ishikawaite (U-rich variety of samarskite group) thorite, uranothorite, zircon and allanite. The structural studies at these anomalies of pegmatites indicated that the NW-SE extensional event is the main role for the crystallization of uranium mineralization in the study area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 384-399 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.31

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Amino Acids and its Role in Plant Nutrition and Crop Production. A review

El-Nasharty A.B., A.I. Rezk and S. S. El-Nwehy

ABSTRACT: The importance of important amino acids in increasing crop yield and overall quality is well understood. Amino acid helps in auxin synthesis stimulant for plant growth, stimulates photosynthesis and plays an important role in the early maturity, resistance the stress conditions such as heat, cold, drought and salinity. Also increasing the growth, yield and proper ripening of fruits. In addition, increases the speed of biological processes within the plant, and disease resistance. Amino acids have been shown in studies to affect the physiological processes of plants, either directly or indirectly. Amino acid foliar nutrition improved grain wheat yield by 0.24-0.43 t ha -1 and grain protein content by 0.63-0.74 percentage points. In addition, grain wet gluten value by 5.5 % and sedimentation volume increased by 11.3 %. However, tomato yield increased by 27%, fruit setting by 28%, plant height 41%, leaf area 24% and total chlorophyll content by 44% due to amino acid foliar feeding, the same trend was observed on pepper yield which reached to 76% increment. Foliar application with tryptophan increased orange fruits yields by 30%, number of fruits 3%, fruit weight 50% and fruit size 46%. Drought, salinity, chilling, freezing, and high temperatures are all common adverse growth conditions for plants. These stresses can stall growth and development, lowering productivity. Plants receive amino acids relevant to stress physiology when amino acids are applied before, during, and after stress conditions, which has a preventing and recovering effect.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 400-413 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.32

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An Investigation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Opuntia Stricta Fruit Peels

El-Dreny E.G., Gomaa, M.M and Gomaa, M.A.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to look into the benefit of using prickly pear (Opuntia stricta) fruit peels as a source of dietary fibre, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids, phenols, flavonoids, total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and the impact of adding them to baked goods. In addition to investigate the antimicrobial effect, sensorial evaluation characteristics of these peels at different levels, which are considered plant excrement, plus storage time of the cupcake at room temperature. On the contrary, it is worth noting that increasing the percentage of peels powder enhanced the sensorial properties of the cupcakes. Results also showed that peels of prickly pear fruits had an inhibitory effect on microbial growth and on it; findings suggest the importance of using prickly pear peels to improve and raise the nutritional, microbial, and sensory consistency of bakery products.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 414-420 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.33

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Increase of Biomass in Some Aquatic Plants Grow under Stress with Using Alternative Sources of Water and Use It as Contamination Indicators

Georgena Wahib Rizk Gabra

ABSTRACT: Living organisms are distributed in ideal ecosystems in balanced proportions without prejudice to the existence of each other. The "Eutrophication" phenomena that means biomass aggravation increment of some aquatic plants occurs when increase the dietary excess by organic, inorganic nutrients and elements in water bodies because of sewage water 'wastewater' leakage into them. These aquatic macrophytes play a major role in conservation of the aquatic ecosystem or even aesthetically for some aquarium, ponds and artificial lakes as a part of the botanical gardens, water parks, fish farms and it may spread a lot in slowly flowing canals and rivers. The purpose of this study is to estimate the rates of increase in plants biomass produced under stress of using alternative water sources. Also, using these macrophytes as contamination biomarkers and in phyto-remediation process and what’s for/on it and its impact in/on its presence in fresh water bodies. The most important of these macrophytes are Pistia stratiotes "water lettuce" as floating plant and Ceratophyllum demersum as submerged one. The experiment was carried out in open field of El- Harrery village, El Montaza, at the east of Alexandria, Egypt, during two successive summer seasons 2014 & 2015 for 28, 34 days for each plant respectively. The plant samples were obtained from the National Center for Oceanography and Fisheries, El- Anfoushi, Quiet Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The means of initial weights of plants were average at 47g and 32g wet weight for each plant respectively. The treatments media were Tap Water as a control [TW] - Primary Treated Domestic Wastewater [PTW 15%, 25%] - Ground Well Water [GWW 15%, 25%] - Mix 15%, 25% [TW+PTW+GWW] from full volume 2.5 L of plastic Jars. The treatments were increased by the same concentration when the water evaporated. The results reached to highly significant differences between treatments in vegetative growth parameters, chemical constituents [total chlorophyll, N, P, K in plants tissues]and Na, Cd and Pb in plants treated with PTW 25%, sediment determination and water quality tests [color and turbidity] before and after the same treatment. The treatment of PTW 25% proved its superiority in most vegetative growth parameters in both plants, but it caused that the fastest growing and the most degraded in water lettuce plant. Thus, it can be recommended that these plants can be released as pollution indicators and monitored in their environment and use this in phytoremediation process.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 421-434 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.34

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Effect of nitrogen sources on the vegetative growth and the chemical analysis contents of ornamental palms of Arenga pinnata and Butia capitata palms

Eman M.M. Zayed and Maiada M. El Dawayati

ABSTRACT: Ornamental palms are one of the most important components of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climate landscapes. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) and Pindo palm (Butia capitata (Mart.), have great economic values and they are excellent palm trees for landscapes. Meanwhile, palm growth and quality are greatly affected by nutritional deficiencies. Different nitrogen sources may be preferred for use with different plant species. Since there is not enough information about fertilization treatments for most of ornamental palms, especially at early growth stages under local conditions in Egypt. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to identify the most appropriate type of nitrogen sources to fertilize ornamental palms of Arenga pinnata and Butia capitate for improving vegetative growth and successful establishment stage in transplanted from containers. Three different sources of nitrogen as ammonium sulfate at 5 g/pot, potassium nitrate at 3g/pot, and urea at 2 g/pot, were applied. The results revealed that vegetative growth parameters and chemical analysis contents of the studied palms, varied among the three treatments of nitrogen sources, the highest value of plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weights of leaves and roots achieved with potassium nitrate at 3g/pot. The highest values of chemical content, increased progressively by potassium nitrate and ammonium sulfate as compared with urea. It can be recommended to use potassium nitrate at 3g/pot or ammonium sulfate at 5 g/pot to improve the vegetative growth characteristics of the two ornamental palm plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 435-455 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.35

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Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Noura El-Sayed, Mohamed Rizk and Magdy Attia

ABSTRACT: Zinc oxide nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against some food borne microorganisms including Gram - positive, Gram - negative bacteria and filamentous fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium verticillioides using agar plate diffusion method. Enzymatic activities were also determined. The results revealed that the ZnONPs have a remarkable inhibition effect on growth of two bacterial species (E. coli and S. aureus), whereas P aeruginosa appeared to be resistant to nanoparticles. Also, growth of the tested fungi reduced significantly with increasing the concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Enzymatic activities of bacteria such as amylase and lipase were significantly decreased at all concentrations used, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml. Similar observations were recorded with the tested fungi.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 446-451 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.36

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Microtextures Studies on Quartz Grains Surface from Mesozoic Silica Sand in Elzafrana area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

Ramag Ahmed Osman

ABSTRACT: Scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analyses of quartz grains from mesozoic silica sand in Elzafrana area, revealed variations in surface textures. The results of this study reveal the existence of distinguished surface features that reflect the effect of mechanical and chemical actions on the quartz grains.This study determines the qualitative microtextural fingerprint of quartz sand grains deposited in Elzafrana, and compares that fingerprint to the fingerprints sediments of uncertain genesis, Aeolian, fluvial, mass-wasting, and other processes all create combinations of microtextures on quartz sand grain surfaces that are unique in the types. These combinations of microtextures record the paleo- environmental history of the study area from which the grains were derived; the various forms of fractures and post-fracture surface alterations found on quartz sand grain surfaces should therefore provide useful evidence of climate and other environmental aspects of the sand grain’s history. Variations in quartz surface textures were detected due to the texture created by mechanical processes was predominating. Abundant abrasion features like V-shaped pits, and linear and curved grooves usually give evidence of transport in a fluvial medium. On levels with intensive reworking and redeposition preliminary relief of grains was smoothed and obliterated. The diagnostic dissolution features were more, where intercalation of dolomites and siliciclastic rocks is common. Possible chemical etching in quartz was observed and fluid effects were responsible for barite precipitation as included in quartz grain. The variability helps to clarify the history of basin evolution and to distinguish different conditions in deposition.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 452-460 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.37

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Effect of Gamma Irradiation on flowering Characters and aspects in anatomical structure of Helichrysum bracteatum L.

Rawia A. Eid, Hashish Kh., M.A. El-Khateeb, H.A. Ashour and R.M.S. Radwan

ABSTRACT: Two experiment were carried out on Helichrysum bracteatum L. plant at the Experimental nursery of the Ornamental Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt, during the two successive seasons (2014/15and 2015/16). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation flowering parameters and anatomical structure of leaves and flowers in two generations (M1and M2).The obtained results showed the following: Seeds of H. bracteatum L. were exposed to eight doses of gamma radiation (5- 40 Gy). The low doses of gamma radiation increased No. of flowers and flowers diameter per plant in M1 and M2. Were obtained on many morphological variations in flowers color and leaves shape through two generations with doses 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 Gy. Some flowering parameters and anatomical structure of leaves and flowers and to confirm the stability of some of the mutations were obtained during the second season. The variants of these selections were selection from plants treated with (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 Gy) of gamma rays.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 461-471 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.38

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Irrigation Intervals Capacity and Acorbic Acid Treatments on Optimize Growth, and Chemical Constituents of Tecoma Capensis L. Plants

Nahed G. Abdel-Aziz, Mona H. Mahgub, Azza A. Mazher, Mona A. Darwish and Ahmed S. Abdel-Aal

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out at the Ornamental Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, during the two successive seasons of 2014 and 2015 in order to enhancement the growth of Tecoma plants grown under different concentrations of foliar application of ascorbic acid (200 and 400 ppm) and irrigation intervals (3, 5 and 7 days). The results showed that irrigation intervals at 3 days gave the highest values of all growth parameters except root length, fresh and dry weight of
roots which increased when plants were treated with irrigation intervals at 7 days. The same treatment increased the chemical constituents except N% in roots, P% in branches and roots, K% in branches and roots, carbohydrates % in roots. Application of ascorbic acid at 400 ppm gave the highest values of the most growth parameters and chemical constituents, followed by ascorbic acid at 200 ppm. The application of ascorbic acid at 400 ppm under irrigation intervals at 3 days gave the highest values of growth parameters and chemical constituents in both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 472-480 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.39

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ASTER Data and mineral studies for mapping the alteration zones at Wadi Sibrit-Wadi Urf Abu Hamam area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Nehal M.A. Soliman, Hatem M. El-Desoky, Mohamed El Rahmany M. Mohamed, Hamed Maira and Wael Fahmy

ABSTRACT: This study aims at mapping the alteration zones and the altered minerals in the exposed rocks of Wadi Sibrit-Wadi Urf Abu Hamam area. The processed ASTER images in varied approaches, supported by field geology as well as mineralogical studies help in differentiating the types of alteration zones from their host rocks. Chloritization, kaolinitization, and sericitization and epidotization are the main types of alterations detected, associating with the related altered minerals eg; chlorite, kaolinite, sericite, llite, alunite, epidote, quartz, and montmorillonite. The high lineament density areas are marked by the extensively alterations due to the mineral bearing hydrothermal solutions activities along the abundant fractures, suggesting a suitable environment for mineral exploration in such areas. The mineral investigation of the selected samples from the alteration zones reveals presence of sulphide minerals such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena; and iron oxides as magnetite, ilmenite, and goethite forming valid host minerals for gold exploration in these alteration zones. Some accessory minerals of albite, calcite, lepidolite, rutile, barite, zircon, thorite, monazite, and brookite were found. The study area is built of metavolcanics intruded by metagabbros, Quartz diorite and tonalite rocks. The Dokhan volcanics, hornblende granites, quartz monzogranites and alkali feldspar granites are exposed in separate and linked masses. Various dykes of different compositions of bostonite, trachyte, dacite, and quartz veins are crosscutting the country rocks in the study area. Meanwhile, dismembers of Phanerozoic rocks represented by lower Nubia sandstones, Natash volcanic and Upper Nubia sandstones.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 481-502 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.40

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Preparation and Evaluation High-Quality Gluten-Free Flat Bread I: Effect of Using Improvers on the Chemical and Physical Properties

Manal H. Abd-Elkader, Nahed S. Yousef and Samah A.T. Abu El-maaty

ABSTRACT: The vision to eat free gluten bread similar to wheat bread is still a dream to free gluten patients. This research focused on finding and implementing gluten for developing gluten-free high-quality commercial bread for celiac patients. Gluten-free flour from different sources, such as rice flour (R), corn flour (C), millet powder (M), flax seeds powder (F), rice bran (B), and potato powder (P), and improvers such as okra, guar gum, and xanthan gum, whey protein and white egg were examined. These ingredients were trialed in different combinations and compositions to produce a dough having the ability to trap the carbon dioxide gas during proofing and baking to get high-quality gluten-free flatbread. A specific combination of FRP, MRP, and BCRP was made. The ingredients and their compositions were manipulated according to the outcomes of the trials and their contribution to the formulations. The chemical composition of the tested gluten-free flour and the physical properties of flatbread were determined. The results presented that, high fiber, protein, and fat content were found in flaxseed powder and okra improver, while, the high ash content found in rice bran. The high viscosity and water absorption capacity (WAC) values were found in gluten-free bread formula (MRP, FRP, and BCRP) with okra improver followed by xanthan & guar gum, whey protein, and white egg. On the reverse, the baking weight loss was lower in MRP, FRP, and BCRP of gluten-free formula with okra improver flowed by xanthan & guar gum. While the improvers whey protein and white egg had the high baking weight loss in the same bread samples. The results showed that adding okra at different levels led to increase the viscosity and water absorption capacity and reduced baking loss in gluten free flatbread compared to the other used improvers. rocks represented by lower Nubia sandstones, Natash volcanic and Upper Nubia sandstones.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 503-513 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.41

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Preparation and evaluation high quality free gluten flat bread II: Effect of using improvers on freshness, texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation

Manal H. Abd-Elkader, Nahed S. Yousef and Samah A.T. Abu El-maaty

ABSTRACT: From a commercial perspective, there is a need for the development of gluten-free bread with texture and flavor properties similar to conventional wheat flour bread. Appearance, texture, taste, and odor in free gluten bread are poor as compared to wheat bread. Free gluten bread staled in few hours and has low freshness than wheat bread. This research tried to produce high-quality free gluten bread in sensorial and texture properties as well as extend freshness. Six different sources of gluten-free flours, rice flour (R), corn flour (C), millet seed powder (M), flax seed powder (F), rice bran (B), and potato powder (P) were selected. Five improvers as okra, guar gum, and xanthan gum, whey protein, and white egg were examined to obtain different combinations and compositions of free gluten flatbread. The moisture content, water activity, texture profile analysis, freshness, and sensory properties of gluten- free flatbread were determined. The obtained results observed that moisture content and water activity increased by increasing improver levels in all formulas. The okra improver recorded the highest moisture contents at zero time and the lowest decreasing rate after 48h of storage. The freshness of all gluten-free bread samples was increased by increasing improver’s levels at zero time. The highest water retention capacity was in okra followed by xanthan and guar gum mixture improvers at zero time and after 48h in all bread samples. Hardness, gumminess, and chewiness decrease by increased improvers levels and increased gradually by storage time. Using okra and a mixture of xanthan & guar gum improvers in different levels enhanced all parameters of sensory gluten-free flatbread. Higher overall acceptability values were in MRP, FRP, and BCRP with 7 g okra (99.17, 96.33, and 94.67, respectively). There is no raw material, additives, or ingredients that can completely substitute gluten, but the combination of different raw materials, ingredients, and proper production technologies could promote the production of the gluten-free product of good quality. The results showed that adding okra at different levels led to increase in water activity, freshness, water retention capacity and enhanced sensory attribute of the gluten free flatbread compared to other used improvers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 514-530
] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.42

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Zinc in the Soil and Its Importance for the Plants and Human Health. An integrated review

El-Sayed A.A., El-Dahshouri M.F. , El Masry M.F.A., Hassan H.S.A. and Darwish M.A.

Abstract: Zinc as an essential element plays an important role in the balanced integrated nutrition of plants. It is an important microelement for improving the yield and quality of agricultural products, and hence improves animals and human health. Zinc has special physiological functions in all living organisms, such as maintaining the structural and functional integrity of biological membranes, facilitating protein synthesis, gene expression, enzyme synthesis, energy production and the Krebs cycle. Zn deficiency is a universal problem of great importance for agriculture and human health, as a lack of zinc element in the soils reduces crop productivity and qualities, because of the imbalance caused in many physiological functions dependent on zinc and are unable to function normally. The soil factors viz., pH, organic matter, clay percentage, calcium carbonate content are consider as the most important factors that affecting the availability of zinc to plants. Zinc availability in the soils is greatly affected by their total zinc content, organic matter contents, soil moisture status, microbial activity in the rhizosphere, redox conditions, and concentrations of other macro and microelements, especially copper, phosphorus and nitrogen. In arid and semi-arid regions, calcareous soils (rich in calcium carbonate) are widespread, which is distinguished by low zinc availability and consequently low zinc availability and uptake by plants. As zinc is an active element in the biochemical processes, and there are chemical and biological interactions between Zn and some other elements such as phosphorus, iron, copper and nitrogen. Zinc deficiency considered as the most widespread micro nutrient deficiencies in crops and pastures worldwide, which affecting plant growth and causes large losses in crop production and quality. Zn visible deficiency symptoms could be one or more of the following symptoms: interveinal chlorosis, necrotic, bronzing, rosetting of leaves, stunting of plants, dwarf leaves and malformed leaves. Around half of the world's cereal crops are cultivated on zinc-deficient soils; as a result, zinc deficiency in animals and humans is a widespread problem. In many parts of the world zinc deficiency in the early stages of a human's life impaired physical growth, neuro development, brain function, memory, and learning ability. Severe zinc deficiency in human's is characterized by stunting, lack of normal sexual development, impaired immune response, skin disorders, hair loss, loss of appetite, and weak body muscles. Recently, elemental zinc is considered as potential supportive treatment in the therapy of COVD-19 infection. The recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for zinc as recommended by the Dietary Office of the National Institutes of Health are: 2-3 mg per day for infants, 5 mg per day for children, 8-11 mg per day for adolescents and adults, and 11-13 mg per day for pregnant and lactating women.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 531-569 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.43

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Reducing Some Abiotic Stress Factors Effect on Valencia Orange Tree Growth and Productivity under Middle Egypt Conditions

Randa E.Y. Habasy, Huda M.H. Ismaiel and Abd Al Rahman M. Abd Al Rahman

Abstract: This study was conducted during 2018 and 2019 seasons, to elucidate the effect of single and combined applications of glutathione, ascorbic acid and citric acid each at three different concentrations; 250, 500 and 1000 ppm on growth characters, nutritional status, yield, physical and chemical characteristics of Valencia orange trees. No doubt single applications of glutathione, ascorbic and citric acid improved the most of parameters under study. But the combined of each at high concentration (1000 ppm) were very effective in stimulating growth characteristics and nutritional status of the trees and improving yield and fruit quality of Valencia orange trees relative to the check treatment. Using these compounds together was more effective than using each alone. Therefore, to improve the yield and fruit quality of Valencia orange grown under Bani- Suef conditions, it is recommended to foliar spray the trees three times, just after fruit setting (the 1st week of May) and two months, intervals (the 1st week of July and September) with a mixture containing glutathione, ascorbic acid and citric acid each at 1000 ppm.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 570-578 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.44

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Cardiac Protective Effect of Terminalia muelleri Extract in Rat Model of Diabetes Mellitus

Sawsan Ahmed Nasr and Mona Saber Hamed

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to evaluate the cardiac protective effect of Terminalia muelleri (TM) in diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with a daily oral dose of Terminalia muelleri (TM) extract (200 mg/kg b.wt) or pioglitazone tablet (1.58 mg/kg b.wt) for four weeks resulted in a significant decrease in the glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and creatin kinase-MB (CKMB) activities as well as homocysteine (Hcy) and troponin-1 (cTn-1) levels in association with a significant increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, glutathione (GSH) content and nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) level when compared with diabetic rats. These data suggest that TM might be an effective antidiabetic agent in the prevention of diabetic complication. TM extract could help in combating against oxidation damage in cardiac tissue.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 579-588 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.45

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Essential oil content and composition of endemic Origanum syriacum ssp. sinaicum and it’s antimicrobial activity

M. Abd El-Motaleb, Asmaa R. Abd El-Hameid, Wafaa A. Helmy, E.A. Ewais and M. S. Abdel-Hady

ABSTRACT: Numerous endemic plants grow naturally in Egypt especially in South Sinai Peninsula at Saint Katherine protectorate, one of those important plants is Origanum syriacum ssp. Sinaicum. Leaves of Origanum plants have an important role in both modern and folk medicine due to their secondary metabolites (Essential oil). The essential oil yield quantity of O. syriacum hydro-distilled through Clevenger apparatus was 6.5 %. The chemical compositions of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major component of GC-MS analysis essential oil detected as oxygenated monoterpenes was carvacrol (95.37 %). The essential oil of O. syriacum leaves was found to possess antibacterial activity against Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activity against Candida albicans.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 589-594 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.46

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