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January-March, 2021


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The Ability of Some Antagonistic Bacteria on Control of Onion Pink Root Rot Compared to Fungicide Efficiency

Zeinab N. Hussien

ABSTRACT: Biological control considered one of the alternatives to fungicides, which have raised serious concerns of food contamination and environmental pollution, beside it is eco-friendly, safe and may provide longterm protection to the crop and this due to its ability to suppress the activities and populations of the plant pathogens. In line with this trend, thirteen bacterial isolates were used to study their antagonistic effects on onion pink root rot caused by Setophoma (Pyrenochaeta) terrestris. In vitro evaluation only eight isolates caused moderate to strong inhibition to the three tested isolates of Setophoma terrestris. Bacillus subtilis (Bs.2) gave the high significant antagonistic effect against the three tested isolates followed by Bacillus subtilis (Bs.1), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf.5). In greenhouse and field experiments, the most effective isolates in reducing pink root rot disease were Bacillus subtilis (Bs.2) followed by Bacillus subtilis (Bs1) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf.5). Also the highest onion bulb yield in the two seasons (2018/2019 and 2019/2020) were obtained by Bacillus subtilis (Bs2) followed by Bacillus subtilis (Bs.1). The results confirmed the ability of some tested bioagents to be near to the efficacy of commercial fungicide in reducing onion pink root rot disease. In this respect, in greenhouse and field trials Bacillus subtilis (Bs2) effect was the nearest one to fungicide effect in minimizing of pink root rot and also superior to the biocide treatment followed by Bacillus subtilis (Bs1) in the two seasons (2018/2019 and 2019/2020). The presented study confirmed the ability of some tested bioaegents to be alternative to the fungicides in reducing onion pink root rot diseases as well as increasing the onion bulb yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-9 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.1

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Entrepreneurship in Farming: Small-Scale Farming and Agricultural Mechanization Hire Service Enterprises in Iraq

Martin Hilmi

ABSTRACT: The main aim of the research was to attempt to better understand agripreneurship and agripreneurs’ characteristics in small-scale farming in Iraq. This involved researching the small-scale farm as an enterprise as well as focusing on a common farm enterprise: agricultural mechanization hire service enterprises. The nature of the research taken was primarily qualitative, based on three literature research and reviews as well as two series of key informant in-depth one-to-one interviews, and took a historical, exploratory and descriptive perspective, while taking an overall abductive research approach.The characteristics of agripreneurship and agripreneurs were identified along with historical and current contextual factors that have influenced and shaped agripreneurship and agripreneurs in Iraq. What emerged mainly was the strong community-based and social stance of agripreneurship and agripreneurs, the role of the public sector within agripreneurship and as an agripreneur, and the highly localized diversity of agripreneurship and agripreneurs and their uniqueness, this not only between the 18 provinces of Iraq but also within the 18 provinces of Iraq. Consequently more research is required on agripreneurship and agripreneurs in Iraq, but in particular focused at the local level of the 18 provinces of Iraq, so as to attempt to better ascertain the diversity and uniqueness of agripreneurship and agripreneurs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-52 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.2

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Studies on micropropagation of Aglaonema tipe Dud Anjamani plants

Gehan M.Y. Salama

ABSTRACT: This study was intended to find out a well-defined commercial production protocol for in vitro propagation of Aglaonema tipe Dud Anjamani. In this respect, shoot tips of the plant were effectively surface sterilized with a mixture of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) were used at 0.5 g/l HgCl2 and 2.0 % NaOCl. In establishment stage, Shoot tips were cultured on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l IBA. For multiplication stage, BA and Kin at 3.0 and 3.0 mg/l formed the highest shoot length, number of leaves and number of shoots. For rooting, 3.0 mg/l IBA was more suitable. Plantlets after root development exhibited 100% survival in peat moss and sand at a ratio of 3:1 under greenhouse conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 53-59 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.3

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Role of Endophytic Bacteria in Induction of Salt Tolerance of Sorghum

Mona M. El-Shazly

ABSTRACT: Salinity is one of the most dangerous environmental limiting factors of the plant productivity. Induction of salt stress using plant growth promotes endophytes (PGPEs) have the ability to promote a symbiotic relationship with their host to improve salt tolerance. In this study the main goal is to improve sorghum plant salt tolerance using endophytic bacteria. Isolation and screening of salt-tolerant endophytes from Mangroove plants (Aveccinia marina and Rhisophora macronata), creals (Barley and Wheat), were achieved through surface sterilization of roots, ability of isolate to grow at different NaCl concentrations was examined. Biochemical activities of isolates towards nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, ammonia production, enzyme production and stress tolerance were determined. From the total 24 endophytic bacterial species that were isolated from root and stem of Aveccinia, Rhizophora, Barley and Wheat. One isolate was recorded the highest activities in all screening test. This isolate was morphologically identified and confirmed identification using 16sRNA as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, this isolate was valuable biological plant growth promoters that could enhance salt tolerance in Sorghum plants under salt stress. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of selected isolate in inducing tolerance of sorghum under three levels of mineral fertilization NPK (50, 75 and 100%). A field experiment was conducted Ras Sudr Research station. South Sinai Governorates, Desert Research Center (DRC). Obtained results revealed that endophyte application recorded an increase in yield reaching (23.5, 21.5 and 19.4% at three levels of mineral fertilization) over control. Concerning to growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight), inoculation process significantly increased growth parameters compared to uninoculated treatment. The inoculation process have a positive effect on the activity and abundance of microbial community and soil enzymes (dehydrogenase and phosphatase) and in the rhizosphere zone. Resulting in an increase of macronutrient contents (N, P and K), Na+ concentration decreased and K+ content increased, in comparison with the non-inoculated controls. The findings reported that the inoculation of the selected endophytic bacteria isolate was successfully isolated from Rhizophora significantly alleviated the harmful effects of salt stress and promoted plant growth and biomass yield under different mineral fertilization levels.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 60-72 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.4

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Study on Genesis and Parent Material Homogeneity of Some Soils West Manfalut, Assuit, Egypt

Aref A. A., El Kady M. M., Faragallah M. A., El-Desoky A. I.

ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is to appraise genesis and parent material uniformity along a toposequence of some soils west Manfalut, Assuit-Egypt for precision of agricultural landuse management. A total of forty soil samples were collected from sixteen soil profiles that represent most of the ground elevations of the study area (35 to 125 m a.s.l). These samples were used for heavy minerals identification. The soils were deep having a texture between sand and sandy clay loam with varied contents of gravel. The highest frequency of Opaques and Ubiquitous was found in the north of the research area (86.9 m a.s.l). Further, Pyroboles and Para-metamorphic minerals were detected in maximum contents in the south portion (59.4 & 111.1 m a.s.l), respectively. A significant positively correlation was found between Augite & Apatite, while a significant negatively one was observed between Tourmaline & Zircon. Maturity index values were dominantly less than 75%, indicating weakly developed soils. Morphological characterization and vertical distribution of Z/T, Z/R, and Z/R+T showed that parent materials of the investigated soils are apparently formed of heterogeneous depositional regimes. Accordingly, these soils have particular landuse restrictions and require moderate to special conservation practices for cultivation and providing permanent protection.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 73-91 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.5

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Efficiency of Nitrogen and Potassium Use and Its Relationship to the Addition of NP K Fertigation of Seqae Date Palm

Abd Elhamid N.S. and Hamdy A. Mahdy

ABSTRACT: The experimental was carried out on Seqae date palm (semi- dry cv.) Produced from tissue culture during three successive seasons (2018, 2019, 2020) grown at El- Dakhala Oasis, Al- Wady Al - Jadid. The palms were received different rates of N, P, K fertigation. The annual rates per palm were 500,750 or 1000 g actual N in the form of NH4NH3, P fertigation rates (400&800g P2O5/ palm/ year) as H3PO4 and K- fertigation rates (600&1200 g K2O/ palm/ year). Results could be summarized as follows. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) values (the amount of date palm fruits in Kgs. that could be produced from one Kg of nitrogen) were effected with the NPK fertigation. Treatment 4(500 g N +800 g P2O5+1200 g K2O/ palm/ year) gave the highest values198, 206, 333 kgs. Fruits Seqae date palm/ one kg. of nitrogen during three seasons. Treatment 12 (1000 g N+800 g P2O5+1200 g K2O/ palm/ ear) produced (118,124,132 kg. fruits/ one Kg of nitrogen.) Potassium use efficiency (KUE) values (the amount of date palm fruits in kgs. that could be produced from one Kg. of potassium) were effected with the NPK fertigation. The uppermost N, P, K level gave KUE (98.3, 103.3,110 kg fruit/ one Kg of potassium) during three tested seasons. The application of the large amount of NPK increased the mineral content of leaves of Seqae date palm. Increasing N rates raised leaf N and Fe contents and decreased leaf P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn content but had no significant effect on leaf Mn content. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents increased with increasing rate of P fertigation, but unaffected on leaf Mn, Zn and Fe contents. K- fertigation increased leaf N, K, Fe and Zn and decreased Ca, Mg and Mn contents.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 92-98 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.6

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Impact of Inclusion Heat-Treated Jatropha Meal in Diets on Performance of Fattening Lambs

Yasser A. A. El-Nomeary, Wafaa M.A. Ghoneem , Mohamed A. Hanafy, Hashem H. Abd El-Rahman, Adel E.M. Mahmoud and Alaa Y. K. Emam

ABSTRACT
This study aims to investigate the effect of substitution cottonseed meal (CSM) by heated jatropha meal
(HJM) with 0, 30, 45, and 60% in sheep rations. Growth performance, rumen fluid, blood properties
and economic efficiency of lambs were also evaluated. Twenty four Barki lambs with an average weight
of 32.9kg were randomly assigned to 4 groups (6 animals of each). The first group fed a control ration
containing concentrate feed mixture (CFM) + peanut vines hay. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th groups fed the
control ration with replacing cottonseed meal by heated jatropha meal at 30, 45, and 60%. Results: The
control group recorded the best average daily weight gain, followed by the R2 group (192.77 vs.
191.10g) compared to R3 and R4 groups. Low ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids were
observed in all different HJM groups compared to the control group. Animals were given rations
containing 45, and 60% HJM (R3 and R4) showed low total dry matter intake and average daily weight
gain. The concentration of serum total protein was not significantly affected by the inclusion of HJM
in experimental rations. Feed cost was decreased in R4, R3, and R2 groups, respectively than the control
group. At the same time economic efficiency and relative economic efficiency was higher in R2 (HJM)
as compared with the other groups. Conclusion: It possible to replace the cottonseed meal with 30%
heated jatropha meal in lambs rations without any negative impacts on growth performance, decreased
feed cost improved economic efficiency and feed use parameters for lambs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 99-109 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.7

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Effect of salicylic acid, gibberellic acid, and hot water dipping on storability of
grapefruit fruits Citrus paradise Macf.
Shaimaa S. Mahdi1, Nameer N. Fadhil2 and Wisam K. Khalid3

ABSTRACT: The study was conducted in the cold room of the Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul. The ripe grapefruit fruits cv. "Star Ruby "was obtained from 10 years old trees Located in a private orchard in Baghdad governorate on 1st of May 2020. Sound and similar fruits were selected and subjected to precooling, then, they were stored in the cold room at a temperature of 5±1˚C. The fruits were dipped in GA3 at concentrations of 0,100, and 200 mg.l-1 and salicylic acid at concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg.l-1, then they dipped in hot water at 20˚C (control), 40˚C, and 50˚C for 2 minutes. The fruits were extracted and left to dry, then they were packed according to their treatments in polyethylene bags, and the fruits were stored at a temperature of 5±1˚C and 85-90% relative humidity for two storage periods (70 and 100 days). Acidity was significantly higher in the fruits dipped in water at a temperature of 20 and 50˚C. Ascorbic acid content reached the highest concentration in the fruits that were dipped in the water of 40°C. Dipping the fruits with salicylic acid at a concentration of 1000 mg l-1 led to a significant reduction in the percentage of spoiled fruits. Total sugars and the acidity percentage were significantly higher in the fruits stored for 70, while spoiled fruits increased significantly during the longer storage period. The interaction coefficients between gibberellic acid and salicylic acid, hot water dipping, and storage periods were more effective than single treatments, where the total sugars was higher in the fruits which dipped in salicylic acid at the concentration 500 mg.l-1 and hot water at a temperature of 40˚C and stored for 70 days. Whereas, the highest percentage of acidity and the highest percentage of total sugars/ acidity were for control treatment that was dipped in hot water at a temperature of 50 or 40˚C and stored for 70 days. The highest firmness was for the fruits that dipped in salicylic acid at concentration 500 mg.l-1, and dipped in hot water at 40°C and stored for 100 days. As for ascorbic acid, the highest content in the fruit was obtained with the salicylic acid at a concentration of 500 mg.l-1 with water at a temperature of 20˚C and stored for 100 days. The best treatment to obtain fruits free from spoilage after storage for 100 days was obtained with fruits that were treated with dipping in salicylic acid at a concentration of 500 mg.l-1 and hot water at 50°C.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 110-116 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.8

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Boron, Structure, Functions and Its Interaction with Nutrients in Plant Physiology. A Review

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Yassen, A.A., and Hammad S.A.

ABSTRACT: Boron is an essential trace element required for the physiological functioning of higher plants, considering as a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the metabolism and growth of plants. Boron is in many ways unique among plant nutrients; however, it is especially distinguished by the substantial differences among species in terms of mobility, the narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and differential inter- and interspecies response to an inadequate supply. Both boron deficiency and toxicity may have detrimental effects on yield of various agricultural plants. Deficiency of boron in soil may reduce the yield productivity particularly for rice crops through increased panicle sterility; fewer productive tillers, shriveled grains, fewer chloroplasts, and lower net assimilate rates along with impaired grain cooking quality. Fertilization of boron may solve and improve boron deficiency. Such disorder pronounced more in the reproductive phase of plant life, particularly in species in which the element is phloem-immobile. Boron is involved in the structural and functional integrity of the cell wall and membranes, ion fluxes H+ , K+ , PO4 -3, Rb+ and Ca+2 across the membranes, cell division and elongation, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, sugar transport, cytoskeletal proteins, and plasmalemma-bound enzymes, nucleic acid, indole acetic acid, polyamines, ascorbic acid, and phenol metabolism and transport. . Boron has been associated with one or more of the following processes: calcium utilization, cell division, flowering /reproductive phase, water relations, disease resistance, and nitrogen (N) metabolism Review examined Boron functions in plants, deficiency and toxicity symptoms. Mechanism and transportation of Boron uptake particularly under low boron concentration. Several factors may occur for boron deficiency including soil characteristics such as, soil acidity and / or alkalinity, low organic matter content, and water deficit. The interaction between boron and other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium; and the availability and application of boron fertilizers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 117-179 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.9

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Influence of hot water dipping, modified atmosphere packaging, and storage periods on pomegranate fruits storability

Nour D.S. Al-Saadoon and Nameer N. Fadhil

ABSTRACT: The study was conducted in the cold room of Horticulture and landscape Dept., College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul on pomegranate fruits cv. “Armishty”. The fruits were divided into four groups, each group was dipped in hot water (20, 40, 50, and 60˚C) for 5 min. Each of the four groups was divided into two secondary groups: The first, the fruits were packaged in high density (27 microns) polyethylene bags and the second was unpackaged fruits. All treatment fruits were stored for three storage periods (6, 12, and 18 weeks) at 5+1˚C, and 80-90% R.H. to study the effect of the treatments on the storability of the pomegranate fruits. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used in the factorial experiment with 3 replicates and 6 fruits for each experimental unit. The results were compared by using Duncan test at 5% probability. Results showed that Polyethylene ackaging resulted in a significant increase in ascorbic acid and a significant reduction in respiration rate, weight loss, and total soluble acids. Also, packaging increased significantly gray mold incidence. Six weeks storage period was superior significantly in total soluble solids, weight loss, ascorbic acid, and was the least significant in gray rot incidence and weight loss followed by 12 and 18 weeks periods. Prolonging storage periods increased respiration rate, weight loss, and gray rot incidence. In respect of the interaction between the three factors, it obvious that the interaction between the packaged fruits and 40 and 50˚C and the shortest storage period (6 weeks) treatment was the best in weight loss and ascorbic acid. Peroxidase enzyme activity was higher in fruits dipped in water at 60˚C. Interaction between the packaged fruits which dipped in 60˚C hot water gave the highest activity for peroxidase enzyme.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 180-187 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.10

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Role of bio-stimulants in crop production under salinity stress. A review

Sona S. El-Nwehy, A.I. Rezk and A.B. El-Nasharty

ABSTRACT: Bio-stimulants are defined as products that are capable of enhancing plant growth, productivity and mitigating the adverse effects of abiotic stresses such as salinity stress, derived from various organic or inorganic substances and/or micro-organisms. Mineral elements, vitamins, amino acids, poly and oligosaccharides, and plant hormones are the most well-known components. Bio-stimulants play an important role in reducing the use of fertilizers, increasing plant growth, resisting water hortage and various environmental stresses, and these materials are effective when used in low concentrations as they improve biological processes inside the plant and increase the productivity and quality of different crops. In addition, it increases the efficiency of using nutrients under conditions of different environmental stresses, regardless of the content of these nutrients. Hence, bio-stimulants were proposed as one of the sources of agricultural additives to increase the resistance of plants to different types of stresses, especially salt stress, because of its negative effects on the growth of the products, which are ultimately reflected in the crop and its quality. Therefore, these products contain biologically active compounds that have beneficial effects on plants and improve their ability to face harmful environmental conditions, as these compounds play an important role in the various biological processes within the plant. Numerous studies have proven the role of different bio-stimulants in improving the growth of plants exposed to salt stress, as different materials have been used from these bio-stimulators, such as: algae extracts, humic acids, yeast extracts, amino acids, microorganisms and growth regulators, in addition to nano-materials, as well as some residues of different manufacturing processes. It was found that spraying algae extract on sunflower plants under saline conditions led to an increase in the seed yield by 23% and an increase in the oil yield by 37%. Also, spraying with yeast extract on tomato plants increased yield by 12%. Whereas, spraying with amino acids increased the grape yield by 63%. From the above, adding these bio-stimulants enable the plant to face the negative effects unfavorable to growth resulting from increased salinity, which retard growth and reduce productivity and quality. Therefore, the use of growth stimulants immediately before, during or after exposure to this condition enables the plant to withstand salt stress and resist its effects.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 188-206 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.11

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Effect of Potassium Levels as Soil Application and Foliar Spray with Silicon and Boron on Yield and Root Quality of Sugar Beet under Clay Soil

Samia M.S. El-Kalawy

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agric. Res. Station,El Gharbeya Governorate, Egypt during the two successive winter seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018. This investigation was aimed to study the effect of potassium levels (0, 12, 18 and 24 kg K2O/fad.) and foliar spray with silicon in the form of potassium silicate (200 ppm Si) and boron in the form of boric acid at 250 ppm B four times at 60, 80, 100 and 120 days after sowing on growth, plant chemical constituents yield and root quality of sugar beet cv Oskar poly grown in clay soil conditions. The obtained results indicated that, the interaction between fertilizing sugar beet with potassium at 24 kg K2O/fad. In the form potassium sulphate and spraying with silicon at 200 ppm gave the highest values of plant height, dry weight of shoots, roots and total dry weight/ plant, highest concentrations of chlorophyll a, b and total ( a+b) in leaf tissues, highest contents of potassium in shoots and roots and silicon in shoots, root diameter, average root weight, yield of top and total yield of roots /fad. as well as higher available potassium, silicon and boron in the soil after harvesting plants. Moreover, the interaction between potassium at 24 kg K2O/fad. and spraying with boron at 250 ppm gave the highest concentration of boron in the shoots, sucrose contents in juice of roots, juice purity, total yield of sugars /fed. No significant differences between boron and Si spraying on yield of sugars/fed. in both seasons. Whereas, the interaction between potassium at 12 kgK2O/fad. and spraying with silicon at 200 ppm significantly increased  amino nitrogen in roots, while unfertilized and unsprayed plants recorded the highest contents on sodium in roots in both seasons. Impurity (%) and sugar lost to molasses (%) had no significant affected by the interaction between potassium levels and foliar spray treatments in both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 207-226 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.12

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Plant genetic barcoding of some Legume tree species grown in Egypt

Houssam El-Din M.F. El-Wakil, Aly Z. Abdelsalam, Hesham M. Aly, Asma Aboshady, Samar M.A. Rabie, Mohamed E. Hasan and Nader R. Abdelsalam

ABSTRACT: DNA barcoding as tools for rapid species documentation based on DNA sequences. During the current study fifteen species were collected, belonged to family fabacea from Antoniades Garden Alexandria between July 2019 and January 2020 RbcL and matK of the plastid genomes were used to study the sequence of the nucleotides bases of these genetic materials, alignment the current genetic sequence which obtained from NCBI and CBOL and matched the observed sequence with other in the GeneBank, calculating the differential between the different species of trees using precise genetic coding instead of the phenotypic distinction and finding the evolutionary relationship between the types of these trees. The results showed that the quality of the extracted DNA which detected by using 1% agarose gel electrophoresis there were no fragmentation was observed in extracted DNA. Also, the extracted DNA was directly used in PCR amplification for the two genes; RbcL (600 bp) and MatK gene (900 bp). The average of nucleotides composition for all the plant species are A=27.23%, G=20.86%, G=22.43% and T=29.45%, while the G+C= 40.30% and A+T= 56.69% in a total number 585.26 nucleotides. Also, the data of MatK gene, showed highly similiters percentage ranged from 95.63 to 99.77 for all the studied species with others in gene bank. For instance, Cassia fistula was identical with the same species on GenBank (99.77%), while Delonix regia showed high similarities with Delonix regia, Delonix boiviniana voucher Bruneau (99.54). The average of nucleotides composition for all the plant species are A=37.30%, G=15.11%, C=16.84% and T=30.75%, while the G+C= 31.95% and A+T= 68.05% in a total number 833 nucleotides. Regarding to RbcL gene, there are high significant homogeneity between the tested species as follow: Tipuana tipu with Schotia brachypetala, Parkinsonia aculeata, Leucaena leucocephala, Delonix regia and Dalbergia sissoo with P-values were 0.010, 0.014, 0.030, 0.000 and 0.024. While other significant was observed between Schotia brachypetala Parkinsonia aculeata with Erythrina humeana by 0.004; Erythrina_humeana with Delonix regia and Cassia javanica by 0.004 and 0.030 and finally, Delonix regia with Cassia fistula by P-values 0.032. On the other hand, for MatK, there are significant homogeneity between Erythrina_humeana and the fowling species were Sophora secundiflora, Tipuana tipu, Senna surattensis, Schotia brachypetala, Parkinsonia aculeata, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia saligna (0.000, 0.000, 0.004, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.000). while Tipuana tipu with Enterolobium_contortisiliquum by (0.036). Also, Erythrina_humeana showed significant homogeneity with the species Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Dichrostachys cinerea, Delonix regia, Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia javanica, Albizia lebbek and Cassia fistula.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 227-237 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.13

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Effect of planting date and foliar application of some macro elements on storability and prolonging the marketing period of sweet potato

EL-Anany A. M. A.

ABSTRACT: An agricultural field experiment was conducted during the two consecutive seasons of 2016 and 2017 in Kaha Vegetable Research Farm, Horticultural Research Institute, to study the effect of planting dates and spraying with some minerals on storage capacity and prolonging the marketing period for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, L.), cv. Menoufia 6. The experiment included 12 treatments, which are: Three planting dates as main treatments with four sub-treatments, i.e., foliar spraying with 2500 ppm potassium, 2000ppm calcium and 1500 ppm magnesium five times throughout the season. Results indicated that the first planting date (April) with potassium foliar spray gave the highest values of vegetative growth (plant length, number of branches, fresh and dry weight of canopy). The interaction between planting dates and nutrients foliar spray was positive on yield and its components (root length, number of roots, roots fresh weight, total yield/fed and marketable yield). First planting date with spraying of mineral nutrients recorded the highest values of both total and marketable yield of tuberous roots compared to the second and third planting dates, where the first planting date superiority followed by the second planting date and the third planting date in descending order, while the cash return was higher in the third planting date compared to the first and second planting dates due to the decrease in the supply of the crop during the harvest period. The results also indicate an increase in the chemical content in the tested plant samples (tuberous roots) in the three planting dates, and it seems that the accumulation of the chemical content inside the tuberous roots had a positive effect on the storage capacity of the tuberous roots for the three planting dates but this effect doubled with the decrease in temperature during the storage period on the third planting date, which recorded the lowest values in the percentage of loss in weight and in the percentage of decay, during the experimental seasons, and this may be due to the suitability of temperature and humidity during the months of storage and the interaction of this with the spraying with mineral elements that work on building and solids of the cell walls and resisting the changes resulting from the external environment. The economic study showed that, sweet potato on-farm storage in is a viable and potentially highly profitable business in Egypt. It was found that the longer the storage period (in case of 2nd planting date), the higher the monetary value of the venture where, it increases with the increase of the storage period up to 120 days. Storing sweet potatoes for 8 weeks (Both June and August planting dates) would still represent a viable business which is not recommended at April plantings in which the stored yield do not sold off before 90 and 120 days (the highest monetary value under all nutrient treatments over the corresponding treatments at harvest time by storing April planting up to 120 days) in order to avoid the loss resulting from the sale after storage periods of 30 or 60 days.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 238-255 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.14

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An Analytical Study of the Current Status of Fish and Spending on it in Fayoum Governorate (A Case Study of Fayoum Governorate)

Yehia M.M. Khalil, Fatima A. Shafiq, Nagwa M. El-Agroudy and Monia B. El-Din Hassan

ABSTRACT: Animal protein is conspicuously one of the most important components of food because it contains amino acids that the body cannot make or replace what is lost from them. Its importance is because it helps to grow and compensate for what is lost from the body. Despite this importance of animal protein, the average annual per capita share in Egypt is lower than the preventive limit recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization. The problem was conspicuously represented in the inability of the local production of fish protein and its failure to keep up with the increasing demand for it, and the increasing population. Moreover, the study aims to study the status of protein production from poultry and fish in Egypt and its most important economic indicators during the period (2000-2018) and to study the spending function of the study sample at different income levels. Besides, the study was based on secondary data collected from The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics and the Ministry of Agriculture. It also relied mainly on the preliminary data collected through the questionnaire form for a random sample of 312 families from Fayoum Governorate and distributed as follows: 147 families from the urban of Fayoum Center nd 165 families from the rural of Fayoum Center in 2019. The study revealed the statistically significant increase in both production and consumption of fish and the insignificant decrease in the average of fish per capita by about 64.986, 63.705 tons / year, 1.65. Kg / year, respectively. Moreover, the study showed an increase in the self-sufficiency rate of fish, which amounted to about 0.711%. It is also show by the study of the consumption spending on fish in the three categories of the study sample that there is a statistically positive relationship between spending on fish and between the numbers of family members. The price of red meat and the price of poultry in urban areas of the governorate for the first and second categories. There is also a statistically significant positive relationship between consumption spending, monthly income and the number of family members in the third category. As for the governorate rural, there is a statistically direct, significant relationship between the spending, the number of family members, the price of red meat and poultry, and inversely with the price of fish in the first category. As for the second category, there is a direct relationship between the consumption of fish and the number of family members and an inverse relationship with the price of fish, the number of family members, the income of the consumer, and an inverse relationship with the price of fish.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 256-261 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.15

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Shading Levels and Chelated Calcium beside Ascorbic Acid Applications as an Effective Approach to Boost the Marketable Yield of Sweet Pepper

El-Eslamboly A.A.S.A.

ABSTRACT: Physiological disorders are the main reason for reduction of sweet pepper fruit quality and marketable yield, especially those caused by a high temperature combined with deficiency of vegetative growth and calcium deficiency. The study was carried out during the seasons 2016 and 2017 under sandy soil conditions in 5.5 m height net house at El-Katta village, Giza, Egypt. This study amid to improve the marketable yield of two sweet pepper cultivars (Helsiniki RZ F 1 as yellow and Massilia RZ F 1 as red) by decreasing abiotic stress (sunscald and blossom end rot (BER.) using three shading levels, and 3 concentrations of chelated calcium and ascorbic acid. In addition to studying their effects on plant growth, total and marketable yield and leaves chemical composition of two sweet pepper cultivars. This experiment consisted of 24 treatments (2 shading levels (25 % whole of season and 50% for 40 days and after that 25% to the end of season) × 3 chelated calcium concentrations (0, 50, 75 ppm) × 2 concentrations of ascorbic acid (0 and 300 ppm) both of them as a foliar application twice monthly on the two sweet pepper hybrids. All treatments were set in strip plot in a randomized complete blocks design with three replicates. Cultivars were set in the main plot whereas the two shading levels were set in the strip and the calcium concentrations were arranged in the sub strips while the ascorbic acid concentrations were arranged in sub-sub plot. The second level of shading (50% for 40 days and 25% to the end) gave significant increases in all aspects of vegetative growth and total chlorophyll content that reflected on total and marketable yield. Whereas it caused significant reductions in the deformed fruits number, by sunscald and blossom end rot (BER) disorders, which maximized the total number, weight and quality of fruits. The fruit color in both cultivars under study was improved by using 50% shading for 40 days + 25% to the end compared with control. Spraying Calcium at 75 ppm had a significant improvement on all fruit characteristics whereas reducing the deformed fruits.The interaction of shading levels with calcium application had a significant vigor in vegetative growth, yield, and fruit quality in both cultivars. Ascorbic acid showed a significant effect on fruit quality especially when applied with 75 ppm calcium chelate in both cultivars under both shading levels.The study recommended that, for yielding a good quantity and quality of sweet pepper, should be use shading (50% for 40 days) in addition to spraying of 75 ppm calcium with 300 ppm ascorbic acid twice a month.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 262-281 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.16

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What Type of Enterprise is An Agricultural Mechanization Hire Service Enterprise? A Review from 19 Countries

Martin Hilmi

ABSTRACT: Agricultural mechanization hire service enterprises (AMHSEs) tend to be seen mainly as business enterprises that operate on servicing farm production operations and other services along the agri-food value chain. But what type of enterprise is an AMHSE and can it be considered as a business enterprise only or can it be defined in terms of other types of enterprise. The research attempted to better understand agricultural mechanization hire services as an enterprise, and in particular, if other typologies of enterprise, beyond that of being a business enterprise, may be found. The nature of the research was primarily qualitative and abductive. It took an exploratory, descriptive and historical approach and was based on two literature research and reviews. The findings from 19 countries, interestingly, provided that there is evidence that shows that AMHSEs are social and community-based types of enterprises to a greater degree, and that the public sector is a catalyst for AMHSEs and plays a pivotal role in terms of AMHSE, either directly or indirectly or both. What was also found was the lack of data and information about family involvement in AMHSEs, in terms of AMHSEs being family enterprises. What also emerged from the research was the particular type of marketing that was provided for AMHSEs, via, for example, marketing services of local and digital brokerage services, but, interestingly, the sources of secondary data and information provided little in terms of what actual marketing practices were carried out by AMHSEs themselves.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 282-304 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.17

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Effect of Irrigation Scheduling and Some Anti-Transpirants on Roselle Plants (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.)

Kenawy A.G.M. and Hafiz Y.A.M.

ABSTRACT: This investigation was carried out during 2014 and 2015 growing seasons at Sids Horti. Res. Station, A.R.C., Beni-Sweif Governorate to study the effect of some anti-transpirants at different irrigation frequencies on yield & fruit quality of roselle plants. Treatments consisted of three irrigation (14, 21 and 28 days) frequencies and three anti-transpirants (K-silicate – Kaolin – proline). It was observed that the plant growth decreased with increasing irrigation intervals however there was improvement in yield components and Chemical constituents. The best treatment which gave the highest values through irrigating roselle plants every 28 days and spraying with proline followed by k- silicat. These treatments enhanced fruits number, fruits fresh weight, sepals fresh weight, sepals dry weight, sepals dry yield and seeds dry weight and increased total chlorophyll and proline content as such improved the quality through increasing acidity and anthocyanine percent during the two growing successive seasons.

[ FULLTEXT PDF 305-314 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.18

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Physiological Characters, Productivity and Quality of Sugarbeet and Nematode Infection As Affected By Planting Dates and Its Cultivars

Hossam M. El-Sharnoby and Ebieda A. M.

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out during 2016/17 and 2017/18 at Nubaryia region in Bihera Governorate to investigate the effect of three planting dates and three sugarbeet cultivars as well as their interaction on growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L.) variety Top and the infection by root- knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.. Each planting date was conducted in a separate experiment, laid-out in split plot design with three replicates. The main plots were occupied by three planting dates, while the sub- plots were devoted to three sugarbeet cultivars. The main findings obtained from this investigation could be summarized as follows: 1-Heba had the highest yield elements, extractable sugar%, and all yield qualities except loss sugar %, as well as the lowest AC, SM, impurity values and nematode infection values. 2- Mirador had the lowest yield characters, its quality, and extractable sugar %, as well as a high nematode infection risk 3- The highest values of Na%, nematode infection were recorded during the 25-Aug, the least values of yield components, extractable sugar %, yield qualities, TSS %, gross sugar percent, and ZB %. 4- 25-Oct had the highest yield components, extractable sugar %, all yield qualities excepting loss sugar %, and the lowest AC, SM, K%, Na %, and nematode infection values. It's probable that it'll return to the peak temperature, dew point, and RH % of all the planting dates tested. While, the effect of both wind speed and pressure were not noticed. 5- It could be recommended that Heba and the plating dates at 25-Oct in Nubaryia region.6- The effect of changing in temperature, dew point and RH% on the productivity of sugarbeet and the infection with nematode need to study different planting dates and sugarbeet cultivars from time to other and location to another.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 315-327 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.19

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Potential of Organo-Biofertilization for Olive Trees in Upper Egypt

Kasem M. S. M.

ABSTRACT: Field experiment was conducted in a private orchard located at about 24 km south east of Assiut, Upper Egypt during two successive seasons 2017 and 2018 on 12-years old Manzanillo olive (Olea europea L.) trees grown at 6 x 6 meters apart in sandy soil and irrigated with drip irrigation from Nile water to study the effect of organic manure in combination with humic acid and one N2 fixed nitrogen cyanobacteria spp. (Nostoc muscorum) alga as bio-fertilization sources as well as micro and/or macro nutrients as foliar spray on fruit and oil production under Upper Egypt condition. Changes in fruit weight (FW), pulp weight (PW), pit weight (pitW), pulp/pit, length and diameter of fruit and pit, length/diameter (L/D) of both fruit and pit, yield/tree, oil content% (OC) and oil fatty acids as affected by organo-biofertilization program on the olive trees were discussed. As organic treatment, OF × (Macro plus Micro nutrients, MacMic) interaction (average of both seasons) exhibited a significant increment in fruit weight, pulp weight, pit weight, pulp/pit, fruit length, fruit diameter, pit length, pit diameter, oil content and yield/tree by 107.5%, 122.9%, 32.1%, 59.8%, 28.0%, 30.7%, 18.3%, 26.1%, 52.6% and 32.8% over MF×control treatment, in descending order. Noteworthy, no significant differences were spotted among both OF×macro and OF×micro interactions for abovementioned traits except oil content. Data also, show that treated plants with O-Bio program exhibited a decreasing of the main saturated fatty acid (SFA) palmitic (C16:0) from 19.29% (MF, control) to 17.18% (OF) in 1 st year and from 19% to 17.03% in 2 nd one as well as stearic acid (C18:0) decreased from 2.07% (MF, control) to 1.93% (OF) in 1 st year and slightly increased in 2 nd one. Moreover, the effect of O-Bio program on the main unsaturated (USFA) fatty acid oleic (C18:1) caused significantly increase in oleic acid, total unsaturated fatty acid and the ratio between total unsaturated and total saturated of Manzanillo olive oil at both years compared with control. Generally, all fatty acids composition was in the range of international olive council standard and the Egyptian Standard of olive oil.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 328-341 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.20

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Evaluate productivity and pest resistance in response to the application of organic fertilizers on Hibiscus sabdariffa L. plants

El-Mogy E.E.A.M., K. E. Attia, Mona S. Megahed and M.M.A. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Two trials were conducted during the two successive seasons of 2017 and 2018 at the Experimental Farm of Horticulture Research Station, in El-Quassassin, Ismailia, Egypt to investigate the effect of effective microorganisms (EM 1 ), humic acid, microelements and different doses of NPK fertilizers under different rates of compost on the growth, yield, anthocyanin and NPK contents of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) plants, in addition to investigate its susceptibility to infestation with insect and mite pests. The results showed that, the highest values of plant height, number of branches/plant, number of fruits/plant, fresh weight of fruits/plant, seed yield/plant, dry weight of calyces (g)/plant, yield of dry calyces (kg/fed.) and anthocyanins content in dry sepals, were obtained from the treatment of [25% compost (3 m 3 /fed.) + (75% NPK (225 kg ammonium sulphate/fed. + 225 kg calcium super phosphate/fed. + 75 kg potassium sulphate/fed.)], followed by [100% compost (12 m 3 /fed.) + EM 1 as 5 liters/fed. (soil adding) + Humic acid as 280 g/fed. (soil adding) + Microelements as 1 kg/fed. (soil adding)] and [100% NPK (300 kg ammonium sulphate/fed.+300 kg calcium super phosphate/fed.+100 kg potassium sulphate/fed.)], without significant differences between them, in most cases, during the two seasons. Regarding the pests associated with Roselle plants, under different treatments, more than one species of insects and insect predators were observed. In regard to the pests of Roselle plants, the all or some tested treatments found infested with more than one species of leafhoppers, three species of aphids, cotton whitefly, onion thrips, green stink bug, cotton seeds bug, spiny boll worm, and the two spotted spider mite. Also, these pests found associated with four species of insect predators. The leafhoppers, Empoasca spp. insects and T. urticea were the dominant piercing–sucking pests infesting Roselle plants throughout the whole season and O. hyalinipennis during fruiting period. In the same trend, highly significant differences (P< 0.01) were noticed between the mean numbers of the surveyed pests and associated natural enemies; which were resulted as the variation of chemical, bio and organic fertilizers rates and types treatments. In where, the relatively low mean numbers of investigated pests of 2.00, 6.33, 2.00, 1.33, 1.00, 15.00, 8.33 individual/sample unite were recorded in the organic fertilizers treatments for Empoasca spp., Aphis gossypii, Bemisia tabaci, Thrips tabaci, Nezara viridula, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis and Tetranychus urticea during the study period, respectively. Also, significant correlation coefficients were obtained between the mean numbers of surveyed pests and each of plant height, number of branches/plant. According to these results, mineral fertilizers could be replaced with compost, EM and Humic acid for producing good yield of healthy Roselle sepals and to avoid bad side effects of agrochemicals with the aim to get safe foods.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 342-357 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.21

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Horticulture Performance and Genetic Diversity of some mandarin cultivars

Abd El-Fattah M. A. Khedr

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out on three mandarin cultivars (Citrus reticulata, Blanco); i.e. Murcott, Balady, and Ponkan grown in clay soil at a private orchard Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate their growth, production, fruit quality, genetic characteristics and hybridization among them during the growing seasons of 2016 to 2019. The three cultivars showed significant variations for leaf area, tree canopy volume, yield, fruit weight and fruit chemical properties. Ponkan cultivar recorded the highest canopy volume (m 3 ), tree Height, fruit length and diameter and SSC%. Balady mandarin had the highest yield, number of seeds and acidity. There was variability in leaves number, plant height, leaf area and branches number of hybrid seedlings. The seedling hybrid number 8 achieved the highest values over the mean of parents (Balady and murcott) cultivars for seedling height, leaves number, leaf area and branches number. DNA fingerprint was performed using RAPD technique for characterization the studied cultivars. RAPD analyses exhibited a total of 53 bands among them, 34 bands were polymorphic of about 64.15%. Those bands were used to distinguish among cultivars. The highest similarity percentage (70) was observed between Murcott and Balady mandarin cultivars, while, the lowest similarity percentage (67) was present between Murcott and Ponkan cultivars. Both morphological and molecular analyses showed a high degree of variation among cultivars and hybrid seedlings indicating that they have an important source of genetic diversity. Therefore, these hybrids could be grafted on different citrus rootstocks, evaluated and used in citrus breeding programs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 358-372 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.22

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Effect of Molybdenum and Azospirillum brasilense Inoculation on Growth and Yield of Pear Trees under Calcareous Soil Condition

Laila Y. Mostafa and Eman M. EL. M. Abd EL-Mageid

ABSTRACT: This investigation was conducted during two successive seasons 2019-2020 on Le- Conte pear trees grown in calcareous soil at AL- Atebaa orchard EL-Nubaria region, EL-Beheira Governorate, Egypt.It intended to find out the possibility of enhancing Le-Conte pear trees under the newly reclaimed land .Thus , this study aimed to evaluate the performance of Azospirillum brasilense,a nitrogen –fixing bacterium and efficiency of molybdenum for stimulating nitrogen fixation during fertilization .The trees received the recommended dose of mineral fertilizer only or combined with biofertilizer with or without molybdenum in order to study their influence on the yield and fruit physical and chemical quality characteristics. The results revealed that, Le-Conte pear trees treated with molybdenum (Mo) either with 500g ammonium sulphate +150g Azospirillum or 1000g ammonium sulphate +100g Azospirillum produced the highest number of fruit/tree, yield and improved leaf mineral content of N,P,K as compared with control. It was also noticed that combined treatment of 500g ammonium sulphate +150g Azospirillum +Mo is the superior treatment for increasing shoot length, leaf area, total chorophyll, fruit weight ,length and diameter, TSS%,TSS/acid and total sugars content and decreasing fruit acidity. All treatments with biofertilizers with or without Mo resulted in decreasing fruit lead, cadmium and nitrite content more than mineral fertilization. Hence, it could be concluded that, minimizing the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer through biofertilizer addition and also, as promising alternative for chemical fertilizers to avoid pollution and reduce costs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 373-382 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.23

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Effect of Some Amino Acids on Improving the Growth and the Quality of Philodendron selloum

Rehab A. Soffar

ABSTRACT: Philodendron selloum cv. “Rayo” grown as its ornamental foliage plants were exposed to foliar spray of amino acids Glycine, Tryptophan, and Glutamine at the rates of (0.0, 50, 100, or 150 ppm) in the two seasons of 2018 and 2019. All amino acids treatments used in this investigation significantly affected the vegetative growth parameters, and the longevity of cut leaves postharvest. The highest plant height was obtained using glycine (50 or 100 ppm). Glycine at the level of 50 ppm gave the highest leaves fresh weights in the two seasons of the experiment compared with the control. Glycine foliar spray at 100 ppm gave the highest vase life of cut leaves in the two seasons. Foliar spray with glycine at the level of (150 ppm) gave the highest chlorophyll A, B, carotenoids and total carbohydrates in leaves and stem diameter in the two seasons. The highest number of leaves/plant was significantly affected by glutamine foliar spray at the level of (100 ppm) in both seasons compared with the control plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 383-390 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.24

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Effect of Irrigation Intervals and Sodium Selenite on Growth, Seed Yield and Essential Oil of Fennel

Esam A. A. Al-Azzony and Rania M.R. Khater

ABSTRACT: This trial was conducted at Balouza Research Station, Desert Research Center, North Sinai, Egypt during 2018 and 2019 seasons on fennel .The effects of irrigation intervals, sodium selenate (source of Se) and their interactions on growth, seed yield and essential oil of bitter fennel plant were investigated. Irrigation intervals were every 4, 6 and 8 days, while the levels of sodium selenate were 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L. Pl ants irrigated every 6 days and sprayed with 30 mg/L (sodium selenate) gave the highest values of plant height, number of umbels / plant, seed yield, NPK and essential oil contents.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 391-399 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.25

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Impact of Bio and Inorganic Potassium and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Its Attributes of Promising Sugarcane Genotypes

El-Taib A.B.A., A. M. Attia and Sakina R. Abazid

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted at Kom-Ombo Agricultural Research Station, (latitude of 24 o 28 N and longitude of 32 o 57' E at an elevation108 m above sea level), Aswan Governorate, Egypt during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 seasons to study the effect of bio and inorganic potassium and nitrogen fertilization on yield and its attributes of some sugar cane genotypes.The study included 48 treatments, which were the combinations of four sugar cane genotypes (G.2006-6 , G.2003-49, C.57-14 and G.T.54-9 as a check), three potassium rates (48 kg inorganic K 2 O , 40 kg inorganic K 2 O + 400 gram bio K and 34 kg inorganic K 2 O + 800 gram bio K /fed.) and four nitrogen rates (210 kg inorganic N, 190 kg inorganic N + 300 gram bio N, 170 kg inorganic N + 600 gram bio N and 150 kg inorganic N + 900 gram bio N fed . A split-split plot design with three replications was used. The results showed that the four sugar cane genotypes significantly differed in the all studied traits. The results indicated that studied bio and inorganic potassium fertilization rates affected significantly in millble cane number, height, and cane yield in both seasons, as well as millable cane diameter weight and nitrogen % in leaves in first season only. Results showed that studied, bio and inorganic nitrogen fertilization levels affected significantly in millable cane number, height, weight, and cane yield in both seasons. While, millable cane diameter in first season only. Under conditions of the present work, supplying sugar cane G.2006-6 genotypes with 100% of the recommended inorganic k-rate (48 kg K 2 O /fed.) integrated with 100% of the recommended inorganic N-rate (210 kg/fed.) and 90% of the recommended inorganic K-rate (40 kg) + 400 g bio- K /fed. integrated with 70% of recommended inorganic N-rate (150 kg) + 900g bio- N /fad resulted in the highest cane yield/fed. in 1 st and 2 nd seasons respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 400-412 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.26

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Productivity and Phytochemical Composition of caraway (Carum carvi L.) plant in Response to Alternaria alternata as One of Endophytic Fungi and Nitrogen Fertilization grown under newly Reclaimed Sandy Soil Conditions

Nagwa R.A. Hussein, Atef A.S. Abdel-Kader and Yassmin M. Shebany

ABSTRACT: The present work was conducted during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 seasons in newly reclaimed soil at Al-Marashda Agricultural Research Station, Qena, Egypt to study the productivity and phytochemical composition of caraway (Carum carvi L.) plant as response to spraying Alternaria alternata as endophytic fungus at 0.3% three times (0, 3 and 6 times per season) and three nitrogen levels (0, 30 and 60 kg N/feddan) as ammonium sulfate and their combinations. Obtained data indicated that the vegetative growth and fruit characteristics, essential oil percentage and oil yield/feddan as well as leaf contents of N, P, K and total soluble carbohydrates of caraway plant significantly affected by spraying endophytic fungus and N fertilizer treatments. The most effective for the growth characteristics and productivity was due to spraying 6 times per season of endophytic fungus and using 60 kg N/fed. Compared to the other treatments. Meanwhile, the highest values of total carbohydrates, essential oil percentage and oil yield/fed. were obtained when plants were sprayed 3 times by endophytic fungus and fertilized with 60 kg N/fed. in the two seasons. Mostly, high P and K contents in leaves were resulted from plants sprayed with endophytic fungus at 6 times per season combined with 30 kg N/fed. Compared to the other treatments. Phytochemical composition of the essential oil in caraway fruits using GLC analysis indicated that, the most important compounds are carvone (major compound), limonene, linalool, caryophyllene, β-pinene, p-cymene, α-pinene, carveol and dihydrocarvone. Most of the different treatments of endophytic fungus and nitrogen fertilizer improvement content most of these components and markedly increased quality of essential oil (oil % , carvone content and carvone to limonene ratio) compared to the control (untreated plants). Therefore, it can be concluded that using A. alternta as endophytic fungus with 60 kg N/fed. as ammonium sulphate can improve the growth, productivity and quality of caraway plants under the reclaimed sandy soil conditions without the need for excessive chemical fertilization to obtain safe and healthy production for the various purposes of these important plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 413-425 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.27

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