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Oct-Dec, 2020

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Alternative way for using wastewater treatments in agro management techniques using micro irrigation systems: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Hammad S.A. and Yassen A.A.

ABSTRACT: In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, water has become a limiting factor, particularly for agricultural and industrial development. Water resources planners are continually looking for additional sources of water to supplement the limited resources available to their region. Several countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region, for Example, where precipitation is in the range of 100-200 mm a-1. In such situations, source substitution appears to be the most suitable alternative to satisfy less restrictive uses, thus allowing high quality waters to be used for domestic supply. Consider low quality waters such as wastewater, drainage waters and brackish waters should, whenever possible, as alternative sources for less restrictive uses. Agricultural use of water resources is of great importance due to the high volumes that are necessary. Irrigated agriculture will play a dominant role in the sustainability of crop production in years to come. The use of appropriate technologies for the development of alternative sources of water is, probably, the single most adequate approach for solving the global problem of water shortage, together with improvements in the efficiency of water use and with adequate control to reduce water consumption. The use of wastewater constitutes an important element of a water resources policy and strategy. Many nations, particularly those in the arid and semi-arid regions such as the Middle Eastern countries, have adopted in principle the use of treated wastewater as an important concept in their overall water resources policy and planning. However, accompanied with an extensive implementation of sewage irrigation, some problems with sewage irrigation became gradually obvious in agriculture, especially those related with pollution and destruction of farmlands. In this paper, the effects of sewage irrigation on soil physical (soil bulk density, soil resistance to penetration and field capacity), chemical (pH, soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, heavy metal and organic pollutants) and biological characteristics (soil microorganisms and enzyme activities) were systematically reviewed. To ensure long-term sustainability, sufficient attention must be given to the social, institutional and organizational aspects of effluent use in agriculture and aquaculture. The reuse of WW finds increased application in irrigation but the presence of toxic elements and microorganisms limits its use for irrigation purpose. To reduce the contamination of WW for irrigation, drip system is seen as an appropriate choice due to restricted quantity of water application. Emitter clogging is viewed as the main problem associated with drip system for its large-scale use with WW. Physical and chemical characteristics of WW were restricted. Higher EC, pH, Mg, and CO3, higher turbidity, total solids,
HCO3, and Ca were observed in the waste water treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 653-688 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.52

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Evaluation of Quality Properties of Melissa Leaves by Different Drying Methods

Ginat El-sherif, Elsayed M. and Hasnaa M. Abo Taleb

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluation the quality properties of Melissa leaves by different drying methods on contents of total phenolic, total flavonoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoids, total color density, browning index and essential oils, results showed that all methods of drying used (ventilated oven, microwave & shade and shade-drying) significantly decreased in content of these properties when compared with fresh leaves. The less effect was observed using microwave & Shade followed by Shade-drying while the greatest effect was observed using ventilated oven. Different drying methods which used had effect on the content of Melissa leaves essential oil. The main components of the essential oil of microwave & Shade were 4-hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin and β Carotene, while in shade-drying were 3, 2, 4, 5-Tetramethoxyflavone, iso Vitexin and4- hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin but in ventilated oven were 4-hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin and Petunidin cation.

[ ULL TEXT PDF 689-F697 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.53

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Genetic diversity among Chinese and Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm accessions based on 19 morphological traits and 16 new microsatellites marker

Hassan H.A. Mostafa, Wang Haiping, Song Jiangping, Zhang Xiaohui and Li Xixiang

ABSTRACT: This investigation aims to develop new SSR primers for assessing the genetic variation of garlic (Allium sativum, L.) germplasm resources collected from Egypt and China, and also between selected clones and their parents, to provide useful information for efficient management and enhancement of garlic germplasm resources. Genetic diversity of Chinese (83 accessions) and Egyptians (21 accessions) garlic germplasm were analyzed using 19 morphological traits and 16 newly developed microsatellites (SSR) primers. The 16 new SSR primer pairs generated a total of 45 alleles across the 104 garlic germplasm. The number of alleles revealed by each primer pair ranged from 2 to 4 and the average polymorphic alleles per locus was 2.81. The allele frequency ranged from 0.4183 to 0.9183. The gene diversity ranged from 0.1529 to 0.6670. Moreover, the observed PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) ranged from 0.1463 to 0.6175 and the average of heterozygosity was 0.4945. The dendrogram constructed based on the SSR data divided the 104 garlic germplasm into three main clusters. The clustering analysis based on morphological characters separated all the germplasm into two major clusters. In the two dendrograms, the genetic relationships among accessions are basically similar. Generally, it could be noticed that both of dendrograms were almost in accordance with geographical origin. Besides, the analysis result by 12 primers of 16 novel SSR primers confirmed the genetic variation between selected clones and their parents, which shows that clonal selection from a natural variation population can be effective for genetic improvement in garlic.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 698-710 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.54

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Effect of salinity stress on growth, chemical constituents and stem anatomy of Duranta erecta L. plants

Nahed G. Abdel-Aziz, Azza A. Mazher, Mona H. Mahgub, Mona A. Darwish, Rania M. A. Nassar and Ahmed S. Abdel-Aal

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out at the Ornamental Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, during the two successive seasons of 2014 and 2015 in order to enhance the growth of duranta plants grown under different concentrations of salinity (2000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 ppm of salt mixture, NaCl: CaCl2, 1:1w/w) by foliar application of 200 and 400 ppm ascorbic acid. The results showed that, growing the plants under 2000 ppm salinity + 200 ppm ascorbic acid gave the highest values of number of branches, root length, fresh and dry weight of leaves, cl ( a, b), N%, P% and K% concentrations in both seasons. While, growing the plants under 4000 ppm salinity + 200 ppm ascorbic acid gave the highest value of plant height in both seasons. Data also reveal that the application of 400 ppm ascorbic acid grown under stress of 8000 ppm salinity caused enhancement in stem structure of salinized plants. Such treatment caused recovery more than 80% of the reduction occurred in all included tissues of the main stem where their meanvalues were almost reached the level of the control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 711-720 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.55

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In vitro slow growth storage of date palm Phoinex dactylifera cv. Gondelah using somatic embryo and the shoot cultures

Maiada M. El-Dawayati

ABSTRACT: In vitro germplasm conservation is one of the main axes in the date palm (Phoinex dactylifera) micropropagation protocol. In the present study, a set of slow growth storage treatments planned by using the manipulation of the MS salts strength, besides adding the abscisic acid (ABA) growth retardant, to the storage culture media of tow regenerative in vitro germplasm materials, i.e., the somatic embryo and the shoot cultures, of the date palm Gondelah cultivar. The investigated study conducted by observing the growth ability under the conservation conditions, the survival and the recovery growth, after the conservation period for 18 months at 15 ˚C of the minimal growth conditions, the results revealed that half-MS strength medium, supplemented with ABA growth retardant at 8 mg/l, was the best to sustain the slow growth storage and the recovery of the date palm somatic embryo clusters explants. On the other hand, the full-MS medium supplemented with ABA growth retardant at 8 mg/l was most suitable for the in vitro preservation and the recovery of the shoot clusters of the date palm, Gondelah cultivar. Where, all recovered explants could regenerate as full intact plantlets, and successfully transferred to the acclimatization stage, to be available for the commercial or research purposes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 721-736 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.56

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Mitigating of Salinity Stress and Amelioration Productivity of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Using Soil Conditioners and Foliar Application of Osmoprotectants

Hamaiel A.F., M.S. Hamada, A.S. Ezzat and H.A. ElHabashy

ABSTRACT: Potato yield and tuber quality, as well as enzymatic activity and their responses to soil amendments and osmoprotectants were evaluated under saline condition (soil EC= 5.2 dSm-1). A field experiment was conducted using potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta) cultivated in the Experimental Farm, Horticulture Research Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, New Damietta, Egypt during 2015 and 2016 summer growing seasons. A split-plot design was used with soil conditioners SC (farmyard manure FYM, humic acid HA, sulfur S, and gypsum GYP) as main plots, proline Pro, essential oils EOs, silicon dioxide SiO2, and ascorbic acid AsA as biomedulators BMs and antioxidants or osmoprotectants randomly distributed within sub-plots. Each treatment was repeated three times. The combined interaction of SC and BMs had significant effects on growth, yield and yield components, quality, and catalase CAT activity. Tuber decline in quality was observed by saline stress as dry matter and specific gravity. Pro and polyphenol oxidase PPO contents in tuber were increased in salinity stressed plants. Application potato plants with FYM at 30 ton.fed-1 as a soil conditioner with a foliar spray with Pro (10 mM) exhibited significant positive effects on all mentioned studied parameters in the two seasons of study. Application of FYM>GYP>HA>S (sole soil application) recorded the highest significant values of growth, yield, as well as nutraceutical properties and enzymatic activity studied parameters over the control. All applied BMs also preserved tuber yield, grading (30:60 and over 60 mm), and quality. Foliar spray with Pro (10 mM) had increased values of all studied parameters over two seasons of the study compared with EOs, AsA, and SiO2. It was concluded that treatment with combined application of FYM and Pro could be a practical approach to avert yield decreases in salinitystress potato and that treatment maintains plant growth, tuber yield, quality, and antioxidant defense system.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 737-748 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.57

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Urban Women Farmers’ Involvement in Cassava Tuber Processing in Imo State, Nigeria

Nwakwasi R.N., P.C.Umunakwe, M.N. Okeke, E.O.Onwuma and S. Nwaozuzu

ABSTRACT: The rising popularity of cassava as a staple crop has raised its acceptance and cultivation among many households in sub-Saharan Africa. The study investigated the roles urban women played in cassava processing in Imo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select a sample of 100 rural women farmers. Data were collected from the respondents using interview schedule. Data were analysed using percentage and mean statistic. The major cassava products available in the area included fufu (91.7%), garri (90.5%), cassava balls (70%) and abacha/tapioca (65.2%). The roles they played included pounding (98.0%), peeling (97.8%), frying (97.0%), cooking (96.7%), sifting (95.0%) and boiling (95.0%). The constraints faced by the women included poor market demand (�� �� = 3.5), unstable power supply (�� �� = 3.4), inadequate information on processing (�� �� = 3.3), the long period of time spent on processing (�� �� = 3.4) and inadequate finance (�� �� = 3.3). It was recommended that credit facilities among other things should be provided to the women to increase their involvement in cassava processing.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 749-757 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.58

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Evaluation of some potato cultivars productivity by using seedling

Elsagan M.A.M.

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out at Baloza Station of the Desert Research Center at North Sinai Governorate during two consecutive seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018. The experiment was conducted to study the response of five imported potato cultivars i.e. Spunta, Cara, Diamant, Arizona and Nicola to tubers soaking in different concentrations of gibberellin i e., 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm for 1 hour and effect on sprouting; seedling production; growth and yield. The trial was conducted in three stages i e., Laboratory and green house stages to produce seedlings for planting open field stage. Results revealed that the highest values on No. of buds/tuber; percentage of bud sprouts/tuber; No. of stem/seedling; No. of seedling/100 tubers; plant weight; No. of branches/plant; tubers No. /plant; percentage of tuber dry matter; plant yield; total tuber number/m² and total yield/fed., recorded significant increase in Cara Cv. followed by Spunta Cv. in both growing seasons. Moreover, gibberellin concentration treatment at the rate of 100 ppm followed by 150 ppm recorded the highest values and significant increases of all most study parameters in both growing seasons. Economic study revealed that Cara Cv. followed by Spunta Cv. combined with gibberellin concentration at the rate of 100 ppm followed by 150 ppm recorded the highest values and significant increase on output; investment ratio and the lowest values of total tubers weight for producing seedling (TW) in both growing seasons. Moreover, it can be recommend to use seedling method produce tuber seeds for the next season because seedling method need lowest tuber seeds to cultivate equal production unit, showed the highest investment ratio and produced high number of tubers/m² when compared with traditional method.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 758-771 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.59

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Analysis of Farmers’ Poor Involvement in Extension Programme Planning in Imo State, Nigeria

Iwuagwu, E.N., A.O. Chukwu, J.A. Aju, E.O. Okoroma, L. Orisakwe and E. Emerhirhi

ABSTRACT: The study analyzed farmers’ poor involvement in extension programme planning in Imo State, Nigeria. The specifics of the study were to ascertain extension programmes available in the area; assess farmers’ extent of participation in extension programme planning process; determine the perceived effects of farmers’ participation in planning extension programme on agriculture in the area; examine factors affecting farmers’ participation in extension programme planning. The study population comprised all contact farmers in Imo State. Data for the study were collected from 180 contact farmers sampled through multistage sampling procedure. Percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used in analyzing the study data. Result indicated that majority (80.6%) of the farmers identified food security programme among the extension programmes implemented in the area. The farmers were not involved in any of the extension programme planning process as none of the items recorded a mean score up to 2.0. The result also revealed that when farmers are involved in planning extension programme their participation is capable of producing programmes that are acceptable to farmers (mean = 3.4); extension programmes that are not too technical to apply (mean = 3.2), increasing implementation of extension programme (mean = 3.1), generating location specific agricultural programmes (mean = 3.0), increasing farmers’ output (mean = 2.6), and producing extension programmes that are feasible within the resources and time of farmers (mean = 2.5). The study concludes that farmers were not involved in planning extension programmes in Imo State, and therefore recommends that organizational structure of extension which still retains most of its originality as designed by World Bank should be reviewed and tailored to meet farmers’ peculiarities at State levels.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 772-778 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.60


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Effect of some mineral nutrients on productivity, tuber seed quality and storability of Jerusalem artichoke

EL-Anany A.M.A. and T.G. Anany

ABSTRACT: This investigation was carried out to determine the effect of some macro elements with calcium (Ca) at 10 kg/feddan and magnesium (Mg) at 5 kg/feddan as well as foliar spraying with micro elements (boron and silicon at a concentration of 100 ppm for each one) and, their combinations on vegetative growth, yield and its components, tuber quality (chemical constituents) and tubers storability of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), cv. Fuseau. The experiment was conducted during both summer seasons of 2015 and 2016, on clay loam soil at Kaha Vegetables Research Farm, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt. The obtained results showed that, the best positive effect was obtained for the treatments of mixing between each of the major elements (calcium and magnesium) as well as the micro-elements (silicon and boron) and the increase
was represented by average plant length, number of main stems per plant and both fresh and dry weight of the total plant foliage as well as both weight and number of tubers in addition to increasing productivity and total yield per feddan, while the control recorded the lowest obtained values compared to the rest of the other treatments. Also, a mixture of spraying with microelements (silicon and boron) with the ground addition of both calcium and magnesium significantly increased the chemical content of tubers, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium as macroelements as well as silicon and boron as micro-elements. It appears that the increase in this chemical content and its accumulation in tubers through treatment had a positive effect on the storability of the tubers as the percentage of weight loss and decomposition during the storage process, which lasted for three months, decreased when storing at 5°C and 85-95% relative humidity. This may be due to the treatment with the important and necessary elements for the formation of plant cellular walls, which support the plant against external influences, such as loss of internal contents.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 779-790 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.61

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Differential Effects of Oil Spillage on Cassava Farmers’ Livelihood in Eleme and Ogoni Land Areas of River State, Nigeria

Abah G.O., L. Orisakwe, E.O. Okoroma and E. Emerhirhi

ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the effects of oil spillage on cassava farmers’ livelihood in Eleme and Ogoni Land Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. The study specifically examined the causes of oil spillage in the study area, examined the livelihood effects of oil spillage and factors influencing the effects of oil spillage on cassava production in the study area. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 400 cassava farmers selected through multi-stage sampling procedure. Percentage score, mean and Z-test were used to analyze the data collected. The result revealed that pipeline vandalization was identified as the major cause (88.0%) of oil spillage in the study area. Non-payment of compensation to victims of oil spillage (M = 2.6), lack of access to credit/loan (M = 2.5), lack of access to improved varieties of cassava and weak implementation of environmental laws and policies (M = 2.4) were considered as factors promoting the effects of oil spillage on the livelihood of farmers. The result further showed that the mean effect of polluted farm respondents 2.3968; SD = 0.89, while the mean effect of non-polluted farm respondents on cassava production is 2.5510; SD = 0.5822with a mean difference of 0.1542, and thus implies the existence of a significant difference. The study concludes that oil spillage had a devastating livelihood effects on cassava farmers in the study area and therefore recommend effective implementation of mitigation measures to oil spillage in the area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 791-795 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.62

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Studies of Water Needs of Potatoes According to Climatic Conditions Cultivated in Bioinoculated Sandy Soil

Shereen A. H. Saad and Salem E. A.

ABSTRACT: Agriculture sustainably and shortages in the water supply are the most critical issues facing the world in the course of climate change conditions. Deficit irrigation improves water use efficiency, but the reduced water input often limits plant growth and nutrient uptake. Advances in biological sciences hold tremendous promise for surmounting many of the major challenges confronting the world. Microbial inoculants may improve crop productivity even in low-input agriculture by different ways. It helps the land plants to acclimatize the biotic and abiotic conditions for their better survival, growth and development beside it can support the sustainable agriculture systems. To evaluate this, a field experiment in thirty-six containers with dimensions of (0.80 m length, 0.30 m width and 0.40 m depth) that filled with sandy soil was carried out for 2 years. In both years, the experiment was set up in a split plot design where, irrigation levels (60, 80 and 100%) from soil water depletion calculated according to climatic condition as the main plot and four treatments of bioinoculation (Biogen, Mycorrhizae, Mix of them and without adding as control) were applied as sub main with three replicates. The results showed that bioinoculation with tested bioferilizers helped potato plants withstand deficit irrigation although, proper irrigation level is a deciding parameter for the optimum potato yield quantity and quality. The significant effect of studied bioinoculation pronounced by improving the tested vegetative growth and yield characteristics as well as availability of soil nutrients N, P, K and soil aggregates beside soil microorganisms, this beneficial emerging properties could be efficiently exploited in the sustainable agriculture. Results appeared that the combined effect of 80% irrigation level and inoculation with Mycorrhizae registered the highest values of studied characteristics than other treatments which reflected on quantity and quality of potato yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 796-811 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.63

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Influences of Biological Control on Damping Off Diseases of Faba beans as well as Physico-Chemical and Technological Properties

Ghada A. Alfauomy and Marwa A.M. Atwa

ABSTRACT: Faba bean seeds are the most important legumes in terms of consumption, for its positive nutritional properties and the most important diseases of Faba bean seeds are damping off. The field experiments was carried out during the 2017- 2018 and 2018-2019 seasons to study the effect of the biocontrol agents as well as Rizolex T on the incidence of Faba beans damping off disease. The growth parameters, yield and its quality parameters of Faba bean plants were also, studied. The cultures of Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus megaterium bacteria and the Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma. harzianum fungi were used. The results exhibited that, the highest percentage of preemergence damping off reduction, the maximum plant height and the maximum seeds weight per plant were recorded with Rizolex T and P. polymyxa followed by B. megaterium and T. harzianum treatments. Significantly increases in the percentage of survived plants compared with the control were found in all treatments. Number of branches, and number of pods per plants were the highest in the Rizolex T treatment. Quality parameters of the faba bean crops resulted, such as protein, protein digestibility and minerals (Fe and Zn), as well as, total flavonoid and antioxidant activity evaluations were significantly increased in P. polymyxa, B. megaterium followed by Rizolex T compared with control samples. Technological evaluation of density, ratio between cotyledons and seed coats, as well as, water absorption, hydration coefficients and swelling coefficients after soaking and cooking were studied and showed high levels in Faba beans treated with P. polymyxa, B. megaterium and Rizolex T. Also, high level of cookability (stewing) and sensory characteristics were detected in Faba beans treated with P. polymyxa, B. megaterium and Rizolex T compared with other treatments and control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 812-827 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.64

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Impact of organic and bio-fertilizers on soil health and production of quinoa and soybean

El-Gamal B.A., Hanan M. Abu El-Fotoh and Mervat A. Hamed

ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to study the effects of four organic fertilizers consists of compost made of either soybean straw or maize straw mixed with either chicken manure or fungi on soil properties and production of quinoa and soybean. All compost combinations applied with the half recommended dose of mineral NPK. Yield, economic growth of a winter quinoa-summer soybean rotation and soil health. Three types of soil namely sandy, calcareous and clay were used. Lysimeter experiments were carried out in EL-Gemmieza Agriculture Research Station. Agricultural Research Center (ARC), El Gharbiah Governorate, Egypt (Middle Delta region 30º 43- latitude and 31º 47- longitude). Results showed that soybean straw mixed with chicken manure combined with half recommended dose of mineral NPK resulted in the highest growth parameters and yield of quinoa and soybean in all soils. The maximum grain and straw yields of quinoa reached 3.48 and 6.28 Mg ha-1, respectively in clay soil, while in calcareous soil, they were 1.78 and 4.30 Mg ha-1, respectively in comparison to just 1.16 and 2.72 Mg ha-1, respectively in sandy soil. While, the maximum grain and straw yield of soybean were 3.06 and 5.15 Mg ha-1, respectively in clay soil and 1.68 and 3.23 Mg ha-1, respectively in calcareous soil and 1.29 and 2.40 Mg ha-1, respectively in sandy soil. Also, results revealed that values of selective plant growth, physical, chemical and biochemical soil parameters were improved significantly by applied organic fertilizers in particular soybean straw plus chicken manure in all three type soils. It can be concluded that organic fertilizers application in particular soybean straw plus chicken manure combination with half recommended dose of mineral NPK can be an alternative for the best integrated soil fertility management and maintain sustainability over applying mineral fertilizers in all used three soils.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 828-847 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.65

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Protective Role of Spermidine on two Tomato Cultivars against Cold-Induced Lipid Peroxidation by Enhancing Capacity of Anti-Oxidative System

Salwa A.Orabi, S.R. Salman, Faida A. Sharara and S.D. Abou-Hussein

ABSTRACT: Two pot experiments were conducted during two growing seasons 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 at the green house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt to study the effect of spermidine (Spd) on growth parameters, SPAD values, antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as fruits yield quantity and quality (total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid (AsA)) of two tomato cultivars (Strain B and Florida) grown under low temperature conditions. All treatments almostly caused significant increases in growth parameters and SPAD values of the two tomato cultivars relative to corresponding control plants. Moreover all Spd treatments caused marked decreases in MDA and methylglyoxal (MG) values accompanied by significant increases in APX, PAL and Gly Iactivities relative to control plants. All treatments almostly caused significant increases in fruits yield
(g/plant) as well as TSS and AsA of fruit juices of the two tomato cultivars relative to control plants. It is worthy to mention that the highest recorded values were obtained in plants treated with 50 mg/L spermidine, these results hold true for both cultivars. Based on the obtained results, it could be concluded that the protection mechanism with Spd had helped the plants to increase their tolerance against low temperature stress, through mainly the decrease in membrane damage symptoms leading to intercellular osmotic adjustment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 848-856 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.66

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Effect of seed dormancy breaking and seed priming treatments on germination, seedling growth and chemical composition of Canna indica L.

Samah Mostafa El-Sayed and Nahed Galal Abd El-Aziz

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to test the effect of soaking the seeds of Canna indica in concentrated sulfuric acid (CSA) for (30 and 60 min.) and freeze-thaw technique (F-Th) (3 and 6 cycles) as seed dormancy breaking in addition to the control and /or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) at (10, 15 and 20%) as seed primer breaking in addition to the control on overcome the physical dormancy of Canna indica seeds and enhancement the vegetative growth traits and some biochemical component resulted seedlings. The obtained results clarified that the treatment F-Th3 increased the germination percentage (GP %), seed vigor index (SVI) in both seasons and germination rate index (GRI %/day) in the second season; but the lowest mean value of mean germination time (MGT day) was obtained from CSA60. Priming the seeds with H2O2 at 10mM significantly increased the same traits in both seasons, but the treatment with H2O2 at 30mM and PEG 20% gave the lowest mean value for MGT in the first and second seasons, respectively. The interaction of F-Th3+ H2O2 10mM significantly increased GP% in the two seasons and GRI in the second season, but, treating the seeds with CSA60+ H2O2 10mM significantly increased GRI in the first season, while the lowest MGT was obtained from seeds treated with F-Th6+ PEG at 15% and CSA60+control in the first and second seasons, respectively. All the vegetative growth parameters and biochemical analysis recorded the highest mean values with treatment F-Th6 in both seasons. With regard to seed priming treatment, the highest mean value of aerial part length, aerial part fresh weight, antioxidant activity in both aerial part and root, chlorophyll a and carotenoid were recorded with H2O2 at 20mM treatment, and chlorophyll b gave the highest value with PEG 15% treatment in both seasons while the treatment H2O2 at 10mM significantly increased root length, root fresh weight, carbohydrates % in both aerial part and root in the first season. Concerning the interaction treatments, it was found that the treatment F-Th6 + PEG 15% gave the highest value for most of vegetative growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments content and carbohydrates % in aerial part; but carbohydrate % in roots recorded the highest value with treatment F-Th6 + H2O2 at 10mM, and antioxidant activity increased with F-Th6 + H2O2 at 20mM in both parts of the plant in the first and second seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 857-870 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.67

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Effect of reflective particles spraying on productivity and quality of “Anna” appleMalus domestica

Abd El-Rhman I.E., Samir M. Diab and A.F. Sahar

ABSTRACT: This work was carried out through 2018 and 2019 seasons on “Anna” apple (Malus domestica). Trees were 5 years old, grown in sandy soil and planted at 2 x 3 meters apart under drip irrigation system. This investigation aimed to enhanced production and fruit quality of the Anna” apple (Malus domestica). Trees sprayed with Kaolin at 6%, potassium silicate at 3% and calcium carbonate at 3 % in three different spraying dates i.e. (first May - first June - first July). Results proved that spraying with potassium silicate at 3% + calcium carbonate at 3% at in first June spraying date treatment gave the highest leaf area, total chlorophyll, yield and fruit quality of Anna” apple tree. In addition, the interaction between reflective particles spraying treatments and spraying dates recorded significant highest values of Anna apple fruit parameters in both seasons. On the other hand, trees untreated recorded the lowest yield and fruit quality during two studied seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 871-879 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.68

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Effect of Planting Methods and Copper Sulfate on Root Rot Disease and Enhancing Productivity of Irrigation Water on Sugar Beet Crop

M.A. Mahmoud and Gamal A. Farahat

ABSTRACT: Two field trails were conducted in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 winter seasons at Sakha Agricultural Research Station farm, Egypt to investigate the effect of different planting methods and application of copper sulfate to reduce root rot disease, enhance sugar beet yield and irrigation water productivity. A split-plot design was applied, planting methods were allocated in main plots, it included ridges 0.60 m apart (M1), raised-beds 1.20 m apart (M2) and wide raised-beds 1.80 m apart (M3). Copper sulfate were assigned to sub plots at concentrations of 7.15 kg ha-1 (Cu1), 10.71 kg ha-1 (Cu2) and control (Cu0). Results indicated that planting methods of M2 and M3 were reduced water consumptive use by 7.9% and 14.9 % and saved 1217 and 1526 m3ha-1 of applied water, respectively compared to M1 in both growing seasons and had effective role in retarding root rot disease severity and index. Consequently, increased root yield, sugar yield and improved their quality. Adding of copper sulfate with all planting methods led to significant reduction root rot disease, improved yield quantity and quality especially with M2. Also copper sulfate in vitro reduced myceial growth, sporulation and/or sclerotia of mean root rot fungi, wherever Fusarium oxysporum was the most effective one followed by Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Applying the interaction of M2 X Cu2 achieved the highest values of total soluble solids, sucrose, root yield, sugar yield, gross income, net return whereas, the lowest values of root rot disease severity and index, applied water and water consumptive use accordingly, productivity of irrigation water and water productivity for both root and sugar yield were improved.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 880-892 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.69

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Effect of foliar application with urea, benzyladenine and dry yeast on flowering and fruiting of Minneola Tangelo trees to reduce the severity of alternate bearing phenomena

Hanaa Refai Abdallah

ABSTRACT: This investigation was conducted during three successive seasons (2016/2017, 2017/ 2018 and 2018/2019) on Tangelo Minneola (Citrus paradisi Macf x Citrus reticulata Blanco) twenty two years old budded on sour orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) rootsock at Giza experimental station, Agricultural Research center, Egypt. To study the effect of foliar application with urea 20g/ L ,dry Yeast at 4g/L, benzyladenine at 60ppm, a mixture of(urea 20g/L + dry yeast at 4g/L), a mixture of ( urea 20g/L + benzyladenine at 60 ppm) ,and a mixture of ( urea 20g/L + benzyladenine at 60 ppm + dry Yeast at 4g/L ) compared with control treatment (spray with water) on flowering and fruiting of Minneola Tangelo trees to reduce the severity of alternate bearing phenomena .The result showed that treatment with (urea 20g/L + benzyladenine at 60 ppm ) gave the highest values of number of shoots ,Shoot diameter (cm), average leaf area (cm2), fruit set % , remaining fruits after June drop % ,Mature fruits %,yield increment (%) over the control, fruit weight (g) Yield/tree (kg), Yield/ weight feddan (ton), pulp weight (g), Juice volume cm3, Fruit volume (cm3) , Fruit diameter (cm), vitamin c (mg/100mljuice), sugars %, carotenoids ( mg/g fresh wt ) total carbohydrates (mg/g), Chlorophyll- a ,b (mg/g fresh wt), total chlorophyll (mg/g fresh wt),total indoles ( mg/100g F.W),TSS (%),TSS/acid ratio and recorded the lowest juice total acidity %, leaf mineral contents (N, P, Mg, Fe ,Mn and Cu) contents as compared with the control treatment and the other treatments in "off " years, "On" years and" off "years, respectively. Moreover, Foliar application with a combination of (urea 20g/L + dry yeast at 4g/L) gave the highest values of Shoot length (cm), number of leaf /shoot, average leaf dry weight(g), Specific leaf weight (SLW) (mg/cm2), number of fruits/tree, peel weight (g), fruit length ( cm ), leaf mineral contents ( K, Ca, and Zn ) contents as compared with the control treatment and the other treatments in "off " years,"On" years and " off "years, respectively. Foliar spray with 60 ppm + dry Yeast at 4g/L+ urea 20g/L) gave significantly the highest peel thickness (cm) compared with other treatments including control trees. Foliar application with benzyladenine at 60 ppm) gave significantly the highest leaf Total phenols (mg/100g F.W) as compared with untreated (control trees) and the other treatments. Generally, Minneola tangelo trees treated in" off " years (2018/ 2019) gave a high positive effect in reducing biennial bearing severity than trees treated in "off "years (2016/ 2017) and "On" years (2017/ 2018) respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 893-933 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.70

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Effect of Some Fertilizer Treatments on the Growth of Fountain Grass (Pennisetum Setaceum) Grown Under the Stress of Different Levels of Salinity

Neima F. Elghazaly Khaled A. Emam and Warda A. Aly

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out throughout two seasons (2018/2019 and 2019/2020) at the Location on Cairo Ismailia Desert Road, Egypt, to find out the effect of some fertilizer treatments on the growth of fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), grown under the stress of different levels of salinity and three treatments (potassium silicate, carboxylic acid and control), growing medium consists of mixture of sand + compost (3:1, v/v). The effect of treatments on the growth and chemical composition of fountain grass was investigated. The highest level of saline water 4000ppm NaCl reduced all parameters compared with 2000ppm NaCl. Moreover, soil additives and foliar application significantly increased parameters of both saline concentrations, potassium silicate, carboxylic acid and interaction between them has increased all growth parameters, plant height (cm.), no. of tillers /Plant, No. of inflorescences/Plant, inflorescences length (cm), Herb fresh weight/plant (g), Herb dry weight/plant, and chemical components, total carbohydrates and N%, P% and K%. However, the obtained results indicated that applied (4g.) potassium silicate as soil drench with carboxylic acid as foliar application had a positive effect on most of the growth parameters and chemical components.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 934-942 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.71

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Effect of Tuber Cutting and Planting Date on Yield and Quality of Jerusalem artichoke in New Reclaimed Soil under Upper Egypt Conditions

Mohamed H.E.

ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted during the summer seasons of 2018 and 2019 under new reclaimed land in Sohag governorate, with the aim of identifying the optimal planting date and the appropriate planting method using full and cutting tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plant (the local variety), using four planting dates, which were the 15th of March, the 1st and 15th of April and the 1st of May, with two methods of planting, using whole and cutting tubers, and its effect on vegetative traits, yield and its components and the percentage of inulin in tubers. The results indicated that, the second planting date (1st of April) gave the highest values for most of the studied traits, especially plant height, average tuber weight, total yield, as well as the percentage of dry matter and the proportion of inulin in tubers compared to the other planting dates.The values obtained for most of the studied traits showed that, planting with whole tubers clearly better than planting with cutting tubers, which gave the highest values of all traits during the two seasons of the study. The interaction between planting dates and planting methods showed that, the second planting date (1st of April) with full tubers planting achieved the highest results for most of the studied traits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 943-947 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.72

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Numerical Evaluation for Total Yield and Fruit Quality of Five Local Prickly Pear Strains under El-Monofia Governorate Conditions

Elagamy M.K.F., Mahdy H. A., Nebal S. A. and Mona A. Amin

ABSTRACT: Field work of this investigation was carried out during the two successive seasons of 2019 and 2020 on ten - year- old commercial shrubs of the Egyptian prickly pear strains grown in sandy soil at 3 X 3 meters apart, in private orchard in El- Monofia Governorate, Egypt. The strains were evaluated relative to growth, yield and fruit quality. The obtained results could be summarized as follows:-The obtained results showed that, the highest value of cladodes properties and flowering characters expect flowering percentage and total yield were gained for fourth strain in both seasons. First strain produced the highest Flowering percentage and total yield followed by fourth strain while, the lowest values were gained for fifth strain and it ranged between (73.76 – 87.59% and 21.5 – 35.9 kg) in both seasons, respectively. Fruit weight and dimensions as well as seeds weight and number recorded the highest values by first strain followed by third strain while, the lowest values were gained for second strain followed by fourth strain and the fifth strain came intermediate. Concerning chemical parameters, the highest total sugar percentage ranged from 9.2 to 12.5 % and 10.9 to 13.8 % in the fruit pulp and peel and gained the highest percentage with third strain followed by second and first strains whereas, fifth and fourth strains recorded the lowest percentage without significant differences between them in both seasons, respectively. Reducing, non-reducing sugar percentage and pectin content in fruit pulp and peel as well as TSS % in pulp juice take similar trend of total sugar percentage. Second strain was recorded the highest TSS/acid ratio and ascorbic acid content followed by first strain while; the lowest values were gained by fourth and fifth strains. Total score for yield and fruit quality (100). First strain seemed to be the higher in the general evaluation score (96.4 unit) in the average of two seasons followed by third strain (90.87 unit) and fourth strain (89.68 unit) while, the lowest general evaluation score was gained by fifth strain (82.01 unit) followed by second strain (85.11 unit).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 948-958 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.73

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Effect of exposure times of gaseous ozone on quality of strawberry fruits during cold storage

Samia S. Elkeleny, Sheren A. Atala and Diaa O. El-Ansary

ABSTRACT: Strawberry fruits (Fragaria × ananassa) of the cultivar "Festival" were harvested at 75% maturity on 5th and 9th February in 2017 and 2018 seasons, respectively from private farm in Bader Center, Behera Governorate, Egypt and transported to the postharvest Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, to evaluate the effect of exposure times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min.) of ozone gas on quality attributes of strawberry fruits during storage at 0oC for 21 days. Results showed that all ozone treatments of strawberry fruits reduced weight loss and did not show any decay until the end of storage period. Strawberry fruits which exposed to ozone gas for 30 min. was the most effective treatment in maintaining fruit quality, it would reduce weight loss percentage and resulted in fruits with no decay and maintained fruit firmness, TSS, ascorbic acid content, anthocyanins content and total sugars and
also gave fruits with good appearance after 21 days of storage at 0oC and 95 % RH as compared with the other treatments and untreated control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 959-969 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.74

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Effect of Preharvest Application of Some Antioxidants on The Fruit Yield, Quality and Storability of “Manfalouty” Pomegranate Fruits (Punica granatum L.)

Ahmed H. A. Mansour, Hayam M. Elmenofy and Abdel- Moety Salama

ABSTRACT: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one the most important sub-tropical fruits due to its nutritional, pharmacological and therapeutic values. The aim of this work was to study the effects of some antioxidants, salicylic acid (SA) and ascorbic acid (ASA) on the yield, cracking and quality of fruits at harvest as well as fruit chilling injuries, weight loss % and quality at cold storage and shelf life of“Manfalouty” cultivar. Seven treatments, ASA at 250 or 500 ppm SA at 250 or 500 ppm, ASA+ SA at 250 + 250 or 500 + 500 ppm and control were applied three times (July, August, September). All treatments of SA and / or ASA improved total yield, fruit weight, fruit juice %, TSS and TSS/TA ratio at harvest. In fruits with ASA at 500ppm induced the highest total yield, fruit weight and TSS in both seasons followed by T2 (ASA at 250ppm) at harvest. However, T7 (SA+ASA at 500+500ppm) recorded the highest aril weight % and juice % at harvest for both seasons. All treatments significantly reduced the weight loss and chilling injuries at cold storage and shelf life during both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 970-983 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.75

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Effect of Ethrel and Gibberelic Acid on Growth, Flowering, Sex Ratio and Yield to Luffa Plant

Magdy Azmy Barsoom and Mohamed A. Attala

ABSTRACT: The present field experiment was consummated throughout two successive seasons (2016/2017 and 2017/2018) at the nursery of Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt on Luffa cylindrical. The aim to study the effect of some growth regulators (ethrel and gibberellic acid) at different levels on growth, flowering and sex ratio of Luffa cylindrical on February 28 th in both seasons at 4 m distance between plants. After planting, the plants were treated with the first spray after two leaves grown, and the second spray was received after 4 leaves grown, then after that the plants were treated with spraying every 21 days until June 16 th . The experiment was incorporated in randomized complete design with three replications and nine treatments viz 4 concentrations each of ethrel (50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm) and GA 3 (100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm) and control i.e. tap water spray were investigated. The results emphasized that, ethrel treatments especially at 100 ppm showed beneficial effect on improving most plant traits in both seasons (stem length, stem diameter, No. of leaves/plant, No. of branches/plant, fruit length, fruit circumference and its yield). Meanwhile, GA 3 gave was less effect on plant quality and in some instances caused a decrement on some plant parameters. The obtained results exert also the great effect of treating plants with ethrel at 100 ppm for raising number of female flowers/plant, besides raising sex ratio. Also, the growth regulators used (ethrel and GA 3 ) caused an improvement in chemical constituents of the newly formed plants (N, P and K and chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids in both seasons). On the other hand, an economic feasibility study was made that was inferred through the economic evaluation of some economic indicators (total revenue per feddan, gross profit margin, ratio of total revenue to costs), which was calculated to evaluate the ethrel treatment at a concentration of 100 ppm and found it was achieved positive results at the level of the indicators mentioned and also it was found that it achieved high productivity per acre compared to control and other transactions. From the results, it could be recommended to oliar spraying plants with ethrel at the level of 100 ppm as such treatment proved its mastery in most cases on plant traits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 984-993 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.76

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The influence of seaweed extract and irrigation interval on growth and quality production of Hippeastrum hybridum, Hort

Mona A. Sorour and Mona G. Attia

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the effects of extract spray of Ascophyllum nodosum (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 ml/l) on improving vegetative growth, flowering and chemical constituents of Hippeastrum hybridum during prolonged irrigation intervals (3, 7, 10-day interval). Spraying the plants irrigated every 3-days with seaweed extract had the most increment of the vegetative growth parameters (leaf length, number of leaves, dry matter and leaf area) and flowering (stalk length and diameter, flower diameter, earlier flowering, flower long duration and long vase life). Irrigated plants every 7 and 10-days and spraying with 5.0 ml/l seaweed extract gave the highest value of growth parameters, flowering characters, leaf chlorophyll (a) and (b) and total carbohydrate leaves and bulbs contents as compared with untreated plants under the same irrigation interval. It can be concluded that seaweed extracts application enhances plant tolerance against drought. The results indicated that application of seaweed extracts at 5.0 ml/l and irrigated every 7-days had a favorable effect on vegetative growth, flowering and chemicals constituents of Hippeastrum hybridum plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 994-1006 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.77

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Testing the Efficiency of Different Isolates of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas for Some Traits Related to Plant Growth Promoters on Varieties of Onion

B.A. Hassouna, S.H. Fathi and G.A. Mostafa

ABSTRACT: The ability of rhizobacterial isolates (Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) isolated at random from rhizosphere of different onion varieties to exhibit some plant growth promoting properties was evaluated in vitro conditions. After purification the isolates were tested towards their ability to solubilize phosphate and production of auxins. Additionally, field trials were conducted at Mallawi Agricultural Research Station, Minia Governorate, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons (2016/2017 and 2017/2018) to study the impacts of rhizobacterial inoculation on some chemical composition and yield characters of three onion varieties (Giza 6 Mohassan, Giza 20 and Giza Red) under two levels of mineral N- fertilizer. The experiments were laid out in a split-split plot design with three replicates of each treatment and the combined statistical analysis of variables was worked out for both tested seasons. The results of the laboratory experiments showed that the highest values of auxin production for Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas were recorded for isolates number (Azt 1), (Azo 1) and (Ps 1) as they produced 0.53, 0.45 and 0.46 μg/ml, respectively, with the variety Giza 6 Mohassan. While, isolates number (Azt 1), (Azo 1) with Giza 6 Mohassan variety and (Ps 6) with Giza red variety were the most efficient in dissolving phosphate. Results of field trials showed that Giza 6 Mohassan variety inoculated with Pseudomonas and amended with 75% from the recommended-N surpassed the other treatments in chemical composition and all yield characters. The promotive action of such treatment exerted highest values of bulb diameter (6.10 cm), onion yield (6.48 ton fed -1 ), T.S.S (12.21%), N (1.950%), P (0.429%) and K (0.947%).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1007-1020 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.78

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Performance of Some Pomegranate Cultivars under Different Irrigation levels in North Sinai

A.Y. Haleem, W.M. Ghieth and A.A.H. Hegazy

ABSTRACT: Drought is one of the main serious problems for agriculture production which its intensity is increasing in many parts of the world. Hence, this experiment was carried out during 2015 and 2016 to study responses of four pomegranate cultivars Manfalouty, Nab-Elgamal, Wonderful and Wardi grown in sandy soil, in North Sinai Research Station, under different irrigation levels 100%, 75% and 50% of the recommended water level (11, 8.25 and 5.5m 3 /tree/year) on growth, flowering, yield and fruit quality. The results obtained that the highest irrigation level 100% (11 m 3 /tree /year) enhanced vegetative growth, fruit set (%), number of fruits/tree, yield/kg/tree and fruit quality (fruit weight, diameter, length,) followed by descending moderate irrigation level 75% (8.25 m 3 /tree /year) while, 50% (5.5 m 3 /tree/year) gave the lowest values during both seasons. One the other hand, the data showed that the percentage of total sugars, acidity and proline significantly increased by decreasing amount of water. Manfalouty cultivar gave the highest values of growth parameters, total flowers/tree, fruit set (%), no of fruits, yield, fruit weight aspects and sugar content, and the lowest fruit drop (%), fruit peel (%), peel thickness (cm) followed by descending order of Nab-Elgamal cultivar. While, Wonderful and Wardi cultivars exhibited the lowest significant values in both seasons respectively. Moreover, data indicated generally that the best treatment combination was gained from using irrigation level at 100% (11 m 3 /tree /year) with Manfalouty and Nab-Elgamal which exhibited the highest values for all vegetative growth parameters, fruit set (%), fruit weight aspects, fruit arils and the least sugar content. Whereas, the maximum flower/tree, number of fruits/tree, fruit retention (%) and yield was observed with Manfalouty under the same irrigation level. On the other hand, Wardi cultivar under least irrigation treatment at 50% (5.5 m 3 /tree/years) recorded the highest significant values of fruit drop (%), fruit peel (%), fruit thickness (cm), proline (%) and acidity (%). Generally, data clarified that Manfalouty and Nab-Elgamal pomegranate cultivars are considered as a highly tolerant and significant to drought stress under North Sinai conditions compared to Wonderful and Wardi cultivars.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1021-1031 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.79

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The Influence of plant growth regulators and slicing methods inducing direct organogenesis of meristematic florets of date palm

Eman M.M. Zayed

ABSTRACT: In date palm micropropagation protocols, the female inflorescences play an important role, being available tissue culture-explants, alternatively of the limited number of renewing offshoots explants of date palm that used for in vitro propagation. This study conducted to investigate the effect of different auxins types (2,4-D, NAA, NOA) at different concentrations, supplemented in induction culture medium of constant concentration of cytokinins, on inducing the direct organogenesis by adventitious shoots differentiation, of the date palm immature female inflorescences explants, of Barhe cultivar. Also, the interaction effect of slicing method (for the first time studying) of the starting spikelet explants was studied. The results showed that, the induction medium of the appropriate ratio of the NAA auxin type to cytokinins of induction medium, with applying the slicing method of fine chopping for the cultured spikelet, showed the most satisfying results, of direct adventitious shoots formation, direct somatic embryos, and less formation of direct adventitious roots. Developing the date palm micropropagation protocol by inflorescences explants considered a reliable and rapid opportunity to avoid the shortage of date palm offshoots and covering the commercial demands on the date palm
plantlets.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1032-1044 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.80

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Enhancing vase life of Helianthus annuus L cut flowers using Salicylic Acid and Dill essential oil

Eman. Z. Othman and Sanaa. E. A. Esmail

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dill oil and salicylic acid on the vase life of Helianthus annuus L .Experiments were carried out in the laboratory of the Ornamental Horticulture Dep., Fac. of Agric., Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt, during the two successive seasons 2018 and 2019. Flower diameter, relative fresh weight, water uptake, bacterial count, chlorophyll content, total carbohydrates, total phenols, protein content and anthocyanin. Distilled water was used as a control; while dill oil rates at 50,100 and 200 mg/l, supplemented or not with salicylic acid (100 and 200 ppm) were applied by adding to the holding solution. The addition of dill oil at rate of 200 mg/l combined with salicylic acid at 200 ppm to holding solution increased vase life, water uptake, and flower diameter in both seasons compared to the control (distilled water). The highest value of relative fresh weight obtained from flowers holding in vase solution containing dill oil at rate of 50 mg/l combined with salicylic acid at rate of 200 ppm. On the other hand, bacterial count decreased with holding flowers at vase solution containing dill oil at rate of 100 and 200 mg/l combined with salicylic acid at rate of 200 ppm compared to the control and other treatments. The maximum value of chlorophyll content, total carbohydrates, total phenols, protein content and anthocyanin obtained from flowers treated by dill oil at 200 mg/l combined with salicylic acid at rate of 200 ppm.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1045-1056 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.81

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Effect of Different Phosphorus Sources and Urea on Flowering, Foliage Chemical Composition, Fruit Yield and Quality of Mango “Langra” Cultivar

Maklad T.N.

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted during 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 seasons on mango trees“Langra” cv. of 15 years old planted at El Baramoon Horticulture Research Farm, Dakahlia Governorate. The trees grown in clay loamy soil at 5 x 5m apart received the same annual agriculture practices program of mango orchard. The present study include 7 foliar spray treatments of different P sources at concentration of 1000 ppm P 2 O 5 with or without foliar urea spray at concentration of 2000 ppm N, all sprayed 4 times before and after flowering during the two seasons. The 7 treatments were mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) (NH 4 H 2 PO 4 ) + urea, MAP, mono-potassium phosphate (MPP) KH 2 PO 4 + urea, MPP, phosphoric acid (PA) H 3 PO 4 + urea, phosphoric acid (PA) H 3 PO 4 and untreated control (sprayed water only). These treatments were applied to mango trees uniform in size and vigour arranged in RCBD with 3 replicates (one tree / replication). This study aimed to investigate the effect of these treatments on the flowering characteristics, foliage chemical composition characteristics of mango Langra cultivar. The important obtained results were as follows: All the applied treatments were superior significantly the control and gave the highest values of all the studied flowering, chemical composition of mango tree foliage, fruit yield and quality with exception of male flower number / panicle, seed weight %, peel weight % and fruit acidity. Those were at the significant highest values in the control treatment. Adding urea with all P- sources spray gave considerable enhancement to their profounded effect on all the studied parameters. Absolutely, treatment of MAP + urea gave significantly the highest values of all the studied parameters except that of number of female flowers, fruit seed weight %, fruit peel weight % and fruit total acidity compare with the control and all the applied treatments. The reminder treatments also, significantly superior the control one in descending order(MAP, MPP + urea, MPP, PA + urea, PA and at least the control in their beneficial effect on all parameters. This treatment effect order was completely reversed dealing with number of male flowers / panicle, fruit peel weight %, fruit seed weight % and fruit acidity, the control was of their significantly and non - beneficially highest values. While, MAP + urea was of the significantly and beneficially lowest values.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1057-1065 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.82

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