Effect of Sowing Dates and Herbicide "Glyphosate" on Broomrape (Orobanche Crenata) Control and Economic Evaluation of Faba Bean Productivity Under New Lands Conditions
Keywords:Sowing dates, glyphosate, broomrape and faba bean
Two field experiments were undertaken at Ismailia Agricultural Research Station, Ismailia governorate, in broomrape-infested fields with sandy soil conditions during the 2020/21 and 2021/22 seasons to investigate the influence of interaction of faba bean sowing dates (25th October, 10th and 25th November) and six broomrape control treatments [glyphosate twice (6 and 8 weeks after sowing ) at 50 cc/fed, glyphosate three times (6, 8 and 10 weeks after sowing) at 50 cc/fed., glyphosate twice (6 and 8 weeks after sowing ) at 75 cc/fed, glyphosate three times (6, 8 and 10 weeks after sowing) at 75 cc/fed, hand pulling twice (90 and 110 days after sowing )] and untreated check] on broomrape control and faba bean productivity. We implemented a split plot design with four replicates. The main plots were allocated with sowing dates, whereas broomrape control treatments were distributed at random in sub plots. The results showed that the faba bean sowing date on November 25th recorded the highest reduction percentages on number and dry weight of broomrape spikes/m2 in both sowing seasons, which were 73.8 and 88.1% in 2020/21 season and 71.5 and 87.1% in 2021/22 season, respectively, followed by the sowing date on November 10th, which recorded 63 and 70.1% in 2020/21 season and 59.5 and 69.5% in 2021/22 season. The planting dates of 10th November and 25th November produced the greatest seed yield/fed of faba bean, with increases in seed yield (ardab / fed) of 44.6 and 14.3% in the 2020/21 season and 46.6 and 15.5% in the 2021/22 season, respectively, as compared to the sowing date of 25th October. Glyphosate at 75 cc/fed reduced the quantity and dry weight of broomrape spikes/m2 by 93.8 and 92.4% in the first season, and by 92.4 and 92.1% in the second season, respectively, as compared to the untreated control. Glyphosate, on the other hand, boosted faba bean seed output and itsconstitutes in both seasons as compared to the untreated control. In the first and second seasons, the increases in seed output (ardab/fed) were 154.3 and 144.7%, respectively, as compared to the untreated control. The highest net income was obtained by sowing faba bean on the 10th of November with glyphosate twice at 75 cc/fed, which yielded (10450 and 10720 L.E) in the 2020/21 and 2021/22 seasons, respectively, as opposed to sowing faba bean on the 25th of October and untreated (check), which yielded the highest losses of net income (-3275 and -2750 L.E) in the 2020/21 and 2021/22. Thus, the optimum control package for growing faba bean in sandy soil infested with broomrape might be proposed by planting faba bean on November 10th with glyphosate twice (6 and 8 weeks after sowing) at 75 cc/fed in Ismailia area.
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