An Update to Toxicological Profiles of Heavy Metals, Especially Lead as Hazardous Environmental Pollutant: A Review
Keywords:Environmental pollution, ecosystem, heavy metals, lead, toxicity
Globally, Environmental pollution is one of the most important issues of concern to international organizations, international scientific centers and researchers in the fields of environmental and health sciences. Heavy metals are chemical pollutants whose levels increase in water, air and soil, which leads to a threat to the stability of ecosystem and the sustainable development. Contamination of heavy metals in the environment is a major global concern. Recently, the industrial and agricultural activities have caused massive increases in human, animals and plants exposure to heavy metals. Lead (Pb) is considered one of the heavy metals and is characterized by its high risk and toxic effects on living organisms. The health problems caused by Pb have been well documented over a wide range of
exposures on every continent. Pb toxicity has been recognized as a major public health risk. This article reviews recent updates regarding the toxicological profiles of heavy metals. The focus was on Pb toxicity and this review covers the range of Pb exposures and its effects on several organs of body.
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