Genetic Variability and ISSR Markers of some Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars under drought condition
Keywords:Water stress, Genetic Variation, ISSR-PCR markers, Polymorphic information content (PIC), Tolerance Indices
This work was carried out for genetic differentiation for drought tolerance of five Egyptian faba bean cultivars (Sakha 1, Sakha-4, Nubaria-1, Giza-716, and Giza-843) were planted under three levels of field capacity (FC) irrigation doses;100% ,75% and 50% FC respectively with split-plot design in two winter seasons in 2019/2020 and 2020/2021. Growth, yield and its attributes characters, chlorophyll content, stress tolerance indices, and genetic variation were recorded. Five primers of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to detect the variability. Drought caused a significant reduction in growth, yield, and its attributes characters and chlorophyll. Giza843 has a high yield, and its attributes characters under all watering treatments. At the same time, Sakha1 and Sakha4 showed increased sensitivity to drought conditions, although Sakha4 gave high yield and its component under normal conditions while Giza716 cultivar showed high yield under severe conditions. The phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) value was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) value for all studied traits. One hundred seeds weight trait showed the
highest PCV (71.15%), GCV (70.86%), and Genetic Advance (GA) (145.38), while the root length trait showed the lowest PCV (6.49%), GCV (6.04%), and GA (11.59). Higher values of heritability and GA were obtained for pods and leaves number/ plant, pods weight / plant, and 100 seeds weight. Results of tolerance indices indicated that Giza 716 and Giza843 cultivars (cv.) were drought-tolerant cultivars while other studied cultivars were sensitive. ISSR analysis identified 37 loci and heterozygosity ranged from 0.736 to 0.892 with an average of 0.827. Fourteen bands were polymorphic, with 37.83% percent of polymorphism. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values were ranged from 0.75 to 0.89, averaging 0.84. Ten unique bands were used as molecular markers, most obtained by HB12 primer. ISSR markers' cluster analysis divided five cultivars into three main clusters. Genetic similarity and dendrogram were in harmony with yield traits results.
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