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October-December, 2020

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Management of Furrow Irrigation Technology and Its Risk Assessments: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., Yassen A.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A. and Hammad S.A.,

ABSTRACT: The effective way to resolve the shortage of agricultural irrigation water resources is the research and application of new water-saving technology of surface irrigation in Egypt. Surface irrigation is the most common executed irrigation due to its low cost, no special technical experience regarding operation, maintenance and specific equipment are required Furrow irrigation is most widely used among the surface irrigation methods. Applying by small channels or furrows, which follow a uniform longitudinal slope. Efficiency of furrow has low application due to its high water loss through surface runoff, evaporation from water in the furrow itself, evaporation from the soil surface and percolation below root zone. Alternate furrow irrigation is a system of irrigating only one side of the plant, i.e., half of the root system, is irrigated at first irrigation event, while the other side receiving water next time. Two advanced water-saving irrigation technologies for improving ground irrigation technology and the precision surface irrigation technology for improving water use efficiency. Application of the these technologies, may improve the irrigation management and the quality of surface irrigation, obtain the effect of save water and increase production, promote the development of modern agriculture in Egypt, Furrow bed is the most efficient traditional surface irrigation method. The main reasons being attributed to lack of knowledge of furrow bed design, installation and management. Egypt is a major irrigated agricultural country with more than 90% of crop production coming from irrigated areas. Either irrigation water available at farm gates from surface or groundwater resources are more precious, thus demands a more efficient use. However, unfortunately more than 50% of this water is lost due to poor irrigation management practices on farms. Flooding, flat basin and irregular and unleveled border irrigation methods are the norms on majority of farms, which is inherently inefficient. Irrigation technologies such as drip, sub drip are costly and require knowledge that is more technical, thus, negligibly adopted and are generally considered as late time solutions. Although furrow bed irrigation, a relatively more efficient irrigation method, has been adopted, especially for row crops but decision support guidelines for their appropriate installation and management is very limited, thus, potential benefits of furrow beds are yet to be achieved consequently; water productivity of major crops is below global. We consider sustainability to be achieved when irrigation and drainage are conducted on-farm, and within irrigation districts, that does not degrade the quality of land, water, and other natural resources. Describing as maintaining the productive resources required for irrigation, therefore, generations may have the same opportunity to use those resources as we do. Adoption of this strategy may enhanced by policies that require farmers, and irrigation districts, to consider the off-farm impacts of irrigation and drainage. Review illustrating some key guidelines for the appropriate installation and
management of furrow bed irrigation method on farms, that may increase decision support and furthermore, increasing water productivity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 590-616 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.51

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Impact of Drenching of Propylene Glycol during the early postpartum period on the response of Primiparous Holstein cows to ovsynch

Aboshnaf A.R., M.M. Hussein, A.G.M. Hasan and R.L. Abdel Aziz

ABSTRACT: The specific objective was to determine the possible influences of drenching Propylene Glycol (PrGl) at the early postpartum period on circulating levels of progesterone during ovsynch protocol and risk of pregnancy establishment in primiparous Holstein cows. Animals (n=45) were classified into a control group which did not receive any dietary supplementation (n=20) and PrGl group (n=25) where individual cows received once daily 250 mg PrGl drench starting from day of calving till day 30 postpartum. On day 60 postpartum, individual cows of both groups were submitted to ovsynch program and were timely inseminated. Serum samples as well as ovarian examination using ultrasonography were carried out on two occasions, on day seven of ovsynch at PGF2 alpha and at timed artificial insemination (TAI). Serum samples were assayed for progesterone. Results showed that PrGl drenching did not affect daily milk production, BCS of cows at synchronization as well as pregnancy rate after ovsynch (40 vs. 35% in PrGl and control cows, respectively). Regardless of treatment, cows with low progesterone at TAI had higher PR/TAI. When circulating progesterone levels were divided into quartiles, cows within the first quartile at TAI had nearly five folds greater PR/TAI, when compared to those within the forth quartile (70 vs. 14.5%, respectively). Further, treated and control cows had nearly similar size of CL at PGF2 alpha and pre-ovulatory follicle (POF) size at TAI. The size of CL at PGF2 alpha did not vary between pregnant and non-pregnant cows, regardless of treatment, however, pregnant cows had significantly higher POF size (1.58±0.25 cm) than control cows (1.39±0.27 cm). In conclusion, drenching of PrGl during the first 30 days postpartum for primiparous dairy cows did not affect their response to ovsynch. In addition, higher sizes of POF as well as lower levels of circulating progesterone at TAI were associated with greater PR/TAI.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 617-621 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.52

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Quantitative and qualitative effects of different silver nanoparticles concentrations on the pathogenicity and reproductive of root-knot nematode, M. incognita infecting susceptible sugarbeet variety

Gohar I.M.A., Elshaimaa A.E. Mohamed, Nader R. Abdelsalam and Amera F. Zaitoun

ABSTRACT: Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) is the most economically valuable crop species in the order Caryophyllales. Root knot nematodes interrupt the physiology of the plant and able to cause economic importance great losses in production and quality of sugarbeet crop. Chemical nematicides are usually preferred for their effective control; the problems associated with nematicides application turned the workers vision to focus new alternative agents for nematode management programs. In this study, High throughput microcrystalline cellulose decorated silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by different concentrations were evaluated as a nematicidal substance in outdoors pots experiment. The chosen tested concentrations were 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 ppm/ml of Ag-NPs with four replicates/ each concentration along with two methods of application [one time application (AT1) and application two times (AT2)], applied to sugarbeet pots infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Applying Ag-NPs directly to infested sugarbeet pots achieved significant suppression at p ≤ 0.05 of root-knot nematode, M. incognita in terms of reducing numbers in soil, reproductive factor, and knot disease severity%. Efficacy % that related to untreated pots and relative efficacy% that proportionated to pots treated with Ethoprop 10% G get higher potential as of Ag-NPs of concentrations get higher. Time of application AT2 enhanced the efficacy of Ag-NPs at low concentration (under 50 ppm/ml) and occasionally above 50 ppm/ml. Effects of different Ag-NPs concentrations and times of application on yield components i.e. Root yield plant-1(g), Top yield plant-1(g) and sugar yield plant-1(g) of infested sugarbeet plant with root-knot nematode, M. incognita, were related to degree of Ag-NPs concentration to suppress nematodes activity. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs increased yield components i.e. Root yield plant-1(g), Top yield plant-1(g) and sugar yield plant-1(g) even at low concentration (20 ppm/ml) in comparison with control treatment (0.0 ppm/ml). The same trend for quality as sucrose, total soluble solids (T.S.S) and purity percentages of sugarbeet infested with root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in pots experiment. Avoidable loss percentage in roots and sugar yields plant-1(g) as an economic expression responded positively to different levels of Ag-NPs concentrations and to time of application AT2 in low concentration ˂50 ppm/ml. This study has demonstrated a potential environmentally friendly alternative for the management of the root-knot nematodes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 622-637 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.53

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Integration between Antagonistic Fungi and Bacteria for Controlling of Peanut Pod Rot Incidence and Occurrence of Aflatoxigenic fungi

Zeinab N. Hussien and Ahmed M. Gomaa

ABSTRACT: Peanuts are infected with many diseases affecting the productivity, especially pod rot diseases caused by many fungi as well as aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which conceder a major health and food safety problem in the worldwide. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis were tested alone and in combinations for their effect as biocontrol against peanut pod rot pathogenes (Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii) and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus). The fungal and bacterial isolates which have not to reverse effect between them were used in this study. In vitro studies, the highest antagonistic effect against the tested pathogenic fungi was shown by P. fluorescens followed by T. viride (Tv 5) and B. subtilis. In greenhouse and field experiments the isolets of selscted biocontrol againt beside standard consisting of fungicide (Rizolex-T) were evaluated for peanut pod rots as well as incidence of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and peanut aflatoxin contaminations. In this respect, all tested biocontrol agents and their mixture had a significant effect in reducing peanut pod rots incidence compared to the control. Pseudomonas fluorescens alone was superior followed by T. viride (Tv 5) and B. subtilis in reducing of peanut pod rots incidence. While the mixture of P. fluorescens and T. viride (Tv 5) gives the best effect in reducing of peanut pod rots incidence compared to other treatments and their effect was the nearest one to Rizolex-T effect in reduction of diseases incidence. Regard to aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination, isolates of A. flavus were more invasive to peanut pod than A. parasiticus. The most effective treatment was the mixture of P. fluorescens and T. viride (Tv 5) which gave the least incidence of A. flavus and A. parasiticus and reduced preharvest aflatoxins contamination compared to other treatments including fungicide. The highest pod yield obtained with the mixture of T. viride (Tv 5) and B. subtills, followed by T. viride (Tv 5) and P. fluorescens compared with other biocontrol agents while Rizolex-T gave the highest pod yield at all in the two seasons 2017 and 2018. This study conclusion that, the application of more than one antagonists of diverse origin consider a reliable means of reducing diseases and increasing the reliability of biological control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 638-648 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.54

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Clinical study on ruminal disorders in cow

Galbat S. A.

ABSTRACT: Thirty five adult native breed Egyptian cattle were introduced to a privet clinic suffering from ruminal disorders. The animals were divided into three groups, based on clinical signs and ruminal ph. The number of diseased cases with severe ruminal acidosis was fifteen, while the animals suffering from simple indigestion were twelve and those with ruminal tympany were eight. In addition, five clinically adult caws were used as control. Most cases with ruminal indigestion showed partial or complete anorexia, loss of body condition, abdominal pain, cessation of rumination and abdominal distension. Such signs differ according to the disease condition. Ruminal samples and blood samples were collected from all animals and transferred to the laboratory for biophysical and hematological analyses. All samples collected from diseased cases showed changes in the rumen microbial activity. All cases with ruminal dysfunction showed reduction in values and percentages of total and differential protozoal count. Hematological parameters Such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte, Leucocyte and differential counts were performed. A significant increase in pulse and respiratory rates and significant decrease in rumen motility was observed in both acidosis and tympany. Rumen pH decreased significantly in acidosis and simple indigestion and increase in ruminal tympany. In rumen liquor the protozoal count, motility and activities were significantly reduced. Increased PCV was seen in both acidosis and tympany.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 649-656 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.55

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Comparison between using phosphine and/or carbon dioxide for controlling Plodia interpunctella and Oryzaephilus surinamensis in stored date fruits

El-Shafei W.K.M

ABSTRACT: This experiment aimed to evaluate the use of CO2 and phosphine gas, each alone and mixed together, in controlling Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) which infesting stored date fruits. The study also aimed to evaluate the effect of using these gases on the chemical properties and quality of the treated date fruits. Three concentrations of CO2 (50, 75 and 100%) were tested to control the two insects for different exposure
times ranged from 1 to 36 hrs. The obtained results showed that the corrected mortality percentage of the two tested insects increased by increasing the exposure time in each of the three CO2 concentrations, and or increasing of the concentration. The corrected mortality percentages of P. interpunctella and O. surinamensis reached 100% after exposure to CO2 (50, 75 &100%) for exposure periods (36, 24 &16 hrs.) respectively. For phosphine gas five concentrations were tested (0.073, 0.146, 0.292, 0.585 and 1.170 g.) of magnesium phosphide .The results of phosphine showed that the corrected mortality percentage of the two tested insects increased by increasing the concentration of phosphine, Where the corrected mortality percentages recorded (36.67, 53.33, 66.67, 83.33 and 100%) for P. interpunctella larvae, and (23.33, 36.67, 50.00, 66.67 and 100% ) for O. surinamensis adults when exposed to the mentioned phosphine concentrations. When LC50 of CO2 was mixed with LC50 of phosphine, the mortality percentages of the two tested insects increased and reached the maximum 100% by using the mixture containing (CO2 + phosphine) Such level of mortality could be never obtained when CO2 or phosphine was used each alone at these concentrations. Thus, we reduced the amount of phosphine gas used and increased its efficiency. Data showed clearly that P. interpunctella larvae was more susceptible to the two tested gases alone or mixed than the adults of O. surinamensis. The results showed that the gases used in the experiment had no effect on the chemical properties of the treated date fruits compared to the control, especially the mixture of gases, except in the case of treatment with carbon dioxide and phosphine gas, both of them separately, which only increased the total phenols in the fruits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 657-664 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.4.56

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