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October-December, 2019

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Evaluation of Efficiency and Response of Quinoa Plant to Nitrogen Fertilization levels

Abdulrahman M. Almadini, Ayman E. Badran and Abdullah M. Algosaibi

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of the quinoa yield to nitrogen (N) fertilization, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) as well as the correlation coefficient to determine the important traits that contribute in determining the productivity of quinoa crop. Three levels of N fertilizer (i.e., 0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1) were used and laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The results showed that all tested characteristics were significantly increased with increasing N fertilizer treatments showing grain yields per plant varying from 2.48 to 18.08 g plant-1 and grain yields per hectare ranging from 101.23 to 770.2 kg ha-1. In contrast, NUE was significantly reduced with increasing N fertilizer rates from 5.52 to 4.31. The results indicated that there were significant effects of treatments on some chemical components in grains at 0 and 160 kg N ha-1 (i.e., 14.81 and 17.13% protein respectively); N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents in grains, roots and stem. According to the correlation between the vegetative traits and grain yield kg ha-1 varied from 0.95 for no. of leaves plant-1 to 0.99 for chlorophyll content, fresh weight plant-1 as well as leaf area. Also, the simple correlation among agronomic and chemical traits had significant and positive relations with the grain yield kg ha-1 under the investigated N treatments with an exception of P content that recorded a relatively high negative correlation with grain yield ha-1 (-0.589). It may be concluded from obtained results that dry weight as a vegetative trait, grain yield plant-1 as an agronomic trait and the ash as a chemical trait should be taking in considerations suggesting the importance of direct selection for these traits as important ones with grain yield ha-1 under studied treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 839-849 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.1

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Heavy metals, Sources, Chemistry, risks and best applicable approach for remediation of contaminated soils: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., A.A. E-Sayed, Yassen A.A. Sahar M. Zaghloul and A. Khater

ABSTRACT: Heavy metals represent a portion of important environmental pollutants that can causes significant damage to the environment and human health as their solubility and mobility. Main sources of soil contamination are reviewed. Selection the most appropriate soil and sediments remediation technology depends upon soil characteristics, type of pollutant and concentration to be removed and the end use of contaminated medium. This paper will review both approaches and technologies of removing contaminants from eco-system. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils is necessary to at least minimize the affiliated risks, and make land resource always available for agricultural production, enhancing food security and scale down land interval problems arising from changes in the land use pattern. The main technologies were found to be used for heavy metals removal from contaminated soils are: solidification/stabilization (S/S), electro kinetics and in-situ extraction. Soil characteristics, especially texture, organic matter and pH are of great importance in selecting the most appropriate remediation method. Phytoremediation can be also used. The principles, advantages and disadvantages of soil remediation techniques, which are frequently listed among the best-demonstrated available technologies for cleaning up heavy metal contaminated sites, are presented.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 850-865 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.2

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Microbial Diversity in Skin and Soft Tissue Infection Bacteria Isolated from Two Different Geographical Regions in Egypt

Youssef E. A. Mawgoud, Doaa M. Ghaith, Mohamed E.A. Dawoud and Mohamed H. Hussein

ABSTRACT: This investigation aimed to study the variations of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) bacteria from two different geographical and social areas. Along one year, 50 samples were collected from Sharm El-Sheikh and 50 from El-Sheikh Zaid .The number of bacterial infections in El- Sheikh Zaied 34 of 50 patients (68%) that considered higher than in Sharm El- Sheikh City 21 of 50 patients (48%). The infected females were more than males in both cities. Screening and identification of isolated pathogenic bacteria based on morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. Molecular-based identification using 16S rDNA gene sequencing was conducted to emphasize the biochemical and genetical differences between isolates belonging to the same genus in both areas. There was a marked diversity in number and species of isolated bacteria. Out of 21 pathogenic bacteria isolated and identified from Sharm El- Sheikh, 7 were Staphylococcus aureus, 7 Klebseilla spp., 4 Pseudomonas spp. and 3 E. coli. Furthermore, the 34 pathogenic bacteria detected in El-sheikh Zaied included 10 Klebseilla spp. isolates, 9 Pseudomonas spp., 6 Acinetobacter spp., 3 Escherichia coli, 3 Proteus spp., 2 Staphylococcus aureus and one Morganella morganii.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 866-871 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.3

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The dual inoculation with Rhizobium sp. and cyanobacterial extracts enhances the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) responses to white rot disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Nagwa M. M. El-Khateeb and Yasser Nehela

ABSTRACT: In this study, laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the suppression effect of two biocontrol agents caynobacterial (Spirulina sp., Nostoc linckia and Anabaena variabilis) extracts, along with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in common bean plants. Four isolates of S. sclerotiorum were tested for pathogenicity in bean plants, and all isolated fungi proved to be pathogenic and caused white rot symptoms. Results of in vitro studies showed that algal extracts significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogen when compared to the untreated control. N. linckia gave the highest reduction (56.29%), followed by A. variabilis (51.85%) and Spirulina sp. (45.93%), respectively compared to control (0%). In greenhouse experiments, the combined effect of Rhizobium sp. and cyanobacterial extracts significantly reduced disease incidence and severity under artificial infection with S. sclerotiorum. The treatments showed the maximum effects for controlling disease incidence and severity caused by S. sclerotiorum, which were in the range of 13.33 to 26.67 % and 1.24 to 1.82, compared to 73.33 and 4.50 % in infested control, respectively. In addition, these treatments increased number of nodules, plant height, root length, fresh and dry weight of shoots, N2 % and total nitrogen compared to control. The effects were
similar to those of the fungicide Vitavax, which reduced the disease incidence and severity but adversely affected Rhizobium sp. and the symbiotic N2 fixing parameters. Considerable increases in activity of oxidative reductive enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) were recorded in plants grown from treated bean seeds.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 872-887 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.4

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Evaluation of Photosynthetic Capacity and Grain Yield of the Sea Level Quinoa Variety Titicaca Grown in a Highland Region of Northwest Argentine

Juan A. González, Sven E. Jacobsen, Sebastián E. Buedo, Luis E. Erazzú, Daniela A. González and Fernando E. Prado

ABSTRACT: Photosynthetic characterization of the quinoa cultivar Titicaca grown at the Encalilla site (1995 m asl), a high mountain valley of the Argentinean Northwest, is described in this study. Titicaca cultivar, bred in Denmark from Chilean and Peruvian parenteral lines, is a promising short cycle cultivar and daylength neutral photoperiod. Results showed that maximal photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (Amax) and stomatal conductance (gs) were similar to other quinoa varieties. However, carboxilation capacity and leaf transpiration (E) were significantly higher in Titicaca cultivar compared with other quinoa cultivars grown in the same place. Assimilation of CO2 and stomatal conductance exhibited a strong correlation, like that occurs between (E) and (gs). Light saturation point (LSP) and light compensation point (LCP) were higher in relation to other quinoa cultivars. Grain yield of 2.35 and 2.51 g/plant was recorded and indicating a well adaptation to arid climatic conditions of the Argentinean Northwest region. The highest value of UV protective pigments found in Titicaca will be explained by solar irradiance in the grown area in relation to Denmark conditions. Grain yield, harvest index and some physiological parameters suggested a good adaptation of the Titicaca quinoa cultivar to high mountain valleys of the Argentina Northwest. This means that Titicaca may be considered as a good alternative for farmers in order to get similar production in less time.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 888-900 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.5

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Investigation of the periodontal health status of group Libyan children using a novel gingivitis extent and severity indices: with reference to microbial gingival pathogens

Fowziya M. Ali, Miftah S.M. Najm

ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is extremely common oral disease among dentate population. The occurrence and degree of severity of periodontitis is closely related to the early control of gingivitis at early stages of life. This study was aimed to investigate the periodontal health status of Libyan children group who attending children department at the faculty of dentistry at University of Benghazi. Also to validate using gingivitis extent (GE) and gingivitis severity (GS).in evaluating periodontal status of various group children. to serve as a data base for future studies. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and eight children (mean age of 8.0) were included in the study. The samples were subdivided into 3 age groups (42 children in <6yrs old, mixed dentition 6-12 yrs old n=139) and older group (>12 yrs old n= 27). Non-invasive and simplified procedures to examine their periodontal health and caries experience were used. Both the extent and the degree of gingivitis severity were assessed in the incisor area of the maxilla and the incisor and canine area of the mandible in the anterior teeth by using gingivitis extent (GE) and gingivitis severity (GS) indices. The individual gingival units (papillae (P), Margins (M) and attached gingivae (A) were assessed for the presence of inflammation based on visual examinations. The extent of inflammation was measured by scoring the colour change of the most severe gingival unit in both index teeth and forming a mean for both jaws. The caries experience was assessed by using dmft for deciduous teeth and DMFT for permanent teeth. Gngivitis extent and gingivitis severity indices were assessed and majority 206 (99%) out of 208 of children suffered from different degrees of gingival inflammation. Conclusion: There has been more untreated caries and more pronounced gingival inflammations of various degrees in this sample due to the lack of proper dental care.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 901-905 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.6

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The Effect of Alpha-amylase and Ascorbic Acid as Improvers on pan Bread Quality

Eman R.M. Mohamed, Mona S.Halaby, A. S. Nadir and H. G. El-Masry

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate the influence of alpha-amylase and ascorbic acid as Improvers on pan bread quality .In this study 9 treatment in addition to control samples were prepared using 3 levels of Alpha amylase (100,200, 300Unit) and ascorbic acid at (10, 20, 30 ppm).As Rustle for Sensory evaluation the best sample which contained (20A.A and 300 Unit Alpha amylase) than (30ppm A.A and 100UnitAlpha amylase) and (20ppm A.A and 100 Unit Alpha amylase). As Rustle for objective evaluation the best sample which contained (20 ppm A.A and 200 Unit Alpha amylase) than (30 ppm A.A and 100UnitAlpha amylase) and (30 ppm A.A and 300 Unit Alpha amylase). The study recommended that use alpha-amylase and ascorbic acid as level (20ppm A.A and 300 Unit Alpha amylase) and (30ppm A.A and 100 Unit Alpha amylase) the best level to use.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 906-913 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.7

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Effect of water regime and varietal differences on yield and its components of sesame

Amal G. Ahmed, Nabila M. Zaki and M. S. Hassanein

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted at Wadi El-Rayyan, Fayoum governorate, Egypt, during 2017 and 2018 seasons. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water regime and varietal differences on yield and yield components of sesame plants. Water regime treatments i.e. (Normal irrigation, omitting the 3rd irrigation, omitting the 4th irrigation and omitting the 5th irrigation) were added in the main plots, while the two sesame cultivars Shandwell-3 and Sohag-1 were allocated in the sub plots. The results could be summarized as follows: It is clear from data that water regime had a significant effect on yield and its components, where normal irrigation gave the highest values followed by omitting the 5th irrigation in all characters under study (plant height, number of branches/ plant, dry weight (g)/plant, number of capsules/plant, weight of capsules (g)/plant, seeds yield (g)/plant, straw yield (kg)/fed., seed yield (kg)/fed. and biological yield (kg)/fed.) except shelling percentage, seed and harvest index where omitting the 5th irrigation surpassed other treatments. Sohag-1 cultivar surpassed Shandwell-3 cultivar in all studied characters except shelling percentage and harvest index. Regarding of the interaction between water regime and sesame cultivars results showed that there were significant differences in yield and its components characters except dry weight (g)/plant and seed index (g).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 914-918 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.8

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Micropropagation and Cryopreservation of Sultani fig (Ficus carica L.) genotype

El-Homosany A. Abd El-Wahab and Hossam A. Sayed

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to asses shoots micropropagation and cryopreservation of Sultani fig genotype. For shoots proliferation, explants (apical buds) cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl–1 Kin. resulted the highest shoot length (3.66 cm) and shoots number/explant (2.83). The highest rooting percentage (75.00%), root length (2.4 cm) and root numbers (4.08) were obtained on half strength MS medium containing 0.5 mgl–1 NAA. Ex vitro rooting of fig plantlets was successfully acclimatized on mixture of Peatmoss : Sand (1:1) with success rate of 75.00%. Cryopreservation using vitrification procedure, shoot tips were treated with Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) at 0°C for (30, 40 and 50) minutes and plunged into Liquid Nitrogen (LN), the results obtained from vitrification experimental part showed that survival and regrowth rates were varied with time of loading PVS2 and the maximum of survival (50.00%) and regrowth rates were recorded (25.00%) had in shoot tips after 40 min. exposure to PVS2.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 919-926 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.9

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Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Oat Crackers Incorporated with Cactus Pear Cladodes Flour

Ahmed M. Ihab, Rasha K. Mohamed, Wafaa M. Abozeid, Esmat A. Abou-Arab

ABSTRACT: Cactus pear cladodes flour has numerous health benefits and it is an excellent raw material can be used in bakery products. The presented study were aimed to produce healthy oat crackers incorporated with different levels of cactus pear cladodes flour (CPCF) (5, 7.5, 10%) and studying the effect of incorporated on physicochemical, sensory evaluation and texture attributes of oat crackers. Proximate analysis, total phenolic compound and Radical Scavenging Activity were evaluated for CPCF. While, oat crackers samples were examined for proximate and physicochemical analysis. Hardness, thickness, weight, diameter, spread ratio of oat crackers were evaluated .The color and sensory characteristics of CPCF and oat crackers were carried out. The result showed that CPCF high in total phenolic content 1985 mg/100gm flour and DPPH radical scavenging activity 67 %, HPLC analysis observed that there are 7 phenolic compounds (Gallic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, Syringic acid, Ellagic acid, Coumaric acid and Vanillin) and 5 flavonoids (Catechin, Methyl gallate, Rutin, Naringenin and Pyro catechol).Crude fiber in oat crackers significantly increased with increasing of level cactus pear cladodes flour. Results showed that with increasing of CPCF incorporation level yellow color decreased toward a greenish color. Also, there is a significant decrease in crackers weight with increasing of CPCF level from 2.36 to 1.21gm. Highest sensory and acceptability scores was observed the CPCF 7.5 % crackers more than control crackers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 927-936 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.10

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Cytological endometritis in dairy cows: a preliminary study

A.A. A. Zyada, M.M. Hussein, S.M. Abd-Allah, A.A.Y. Khalil, R.L. Abdel Aziz

ABSTRACT: The current study was carried out as a preliminary study to determine the incidence of cytological endometritis (CE) and to investigate its effects on pregnancy in dairy cows. Forty nine dairy cows belonging to two farms were included in the study. Cows were enrolled between 28-42 days in milk (DIM) in farm 1 (n=25), while in farm 2 (n=24), some cows (n=8) were enrolled at DIM>200. Cows were fed three times daily on totally mixed ration (TMR) and were milked three times using automatic parlours. Uterine samples were obtained from examined cows and were stained with Diff-Quick stain to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). A PMN% greater than 18 was taken as indicator of CE. Data pertaining to parity, breed, milk production, conception were obtained from automatic records. Results showed numerically higher incidence of CE in Holstein cows and in low producing cows. In addition, postpartum problems during the first ten days as retained placenta and metritis increased the incidence of CE in examined cows. Furthermore, CE was associated with numerically higher figures of culling among cows and cows with CE achieved lower pregnancy rates, compared to those without CE.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 937-942 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.11

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Valencia orange productivity, fruit quality and storability as affected by foliar application with potassium sulphate, Oleic acid, salicylic acid and phenylalanine

M.M. EL-Tanany and Hanaa Refai Abdallah

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was performed during growing seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 in a private orchard located at Kafr Shukr, Benha Center, Qualyubia Governorate, Egypt. The investigation was conducted on 50-years-old of Valencia orange trees (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) budded on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock. The treatments were T1: control treatment (sprayed with water). T2 and T3 : trees sprayed with potassium sulphate 1% and 2% .T4 and T5 : trees sprayed with salicylic acid at 100ppm conc. and 200ppm,respectivelyT6 and T7:trees sprayed with Oleic acid at250ppm and 500 ppm conc.; respectively.T8 and T9 :trees sprayed with phenylalanine at 200 ppm and 300ppm; respectively.T10: spraying trees with a mixture of (K2SO4 1%+SA 100 ppm + Oleic acid 250 ppm+Ph 200 ppm).T11:spraying trees with a combination of(K2SO4 2 %+SA200 ppm + Oleic acid 500 ppm + ph 300 ppm ). The results proved that foliar application with a mixture of (K2SO4 2% + SA200p pm + Oleic acid 500ppm +ph 300 ppm) produced significantly the highest fruit yield ; expressed as weight and significantly increased peel and pulp weights and fruit juice volume when compared with the control treatment and other foliar application treatments. Moreover, the aforementioned treatment; also improved fruit volume, fruit length. However, fruit diameter character was the highest by foliar application with Oleic acid at 500ppm concentration. This was true during both seasons of the study. As for fruit shape index, Oleic acid 500 ppm, ph 300 ppm treatment was significantly supremacy than other treatments in the both seasons. All treatments reduced percentage of weight loss, decay % during the storage period compared with the untreated fruits (control) during both seasons. Moreover, trees sprayed with a mixture of (K2SO4 2%+ SA 200 ppm + Oleic acid 500 ppm + ph 300 ppm) significantly reduced fruit decay percentages and markedly increased fruit peel thickness compared with the control treatment (water spray) and all other treatments and the difference was significant. Vitamin C was decreased with prolonging the storage period of the fruits. All treatments reduced the loss of vitamin C in fruits during storage period compared with control. The acidity content was gradually decreased with the storage period during the investigated seasons. Vice-versa, fruit total soluble percent and TSS/acid ratio greatly increased with increasing storage period. Both total soluble solids % and vitamin C content in fruit juice were increased when trees sprayed with a mixture of (K2SO4 2%+ SA 200 ppm + Oleic acid 500 ppm + ph 300 ppm ) followed by trees sprayed with Oleic acid at 500ppm concentration.
Besides, fruit total acidity and TSS/acid ratio significantly augment by spraying trees with this treatment. In addition; foliar application with phenylalanine at 300ppm significantly enhanced the ratio of TSS/acidity of Valencia orange fruits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 943-962 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.12

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Identification of Triacylglycerol Composition of Some Olive Oil Cultivars Cultivated in Some Different Areas in Egypt

Rania I.M. Almoselhy, Susan M.M. Abd-Elmageed and M.E.I. Elsorady

ABSTRACT: Three important Egyptian olive cultivars (Coratina, Kroneiki and Picual) were collected from different areas: (Horticulture Res. Inst. Giza, Qassaseen Ismaelia and Khatatba) in Egypt on the middle of November, 2016. Triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions were studied. As purity parameters, triacylglycerol composition in the oil samples was determined according to International Olive Council. All types of oils were characterized by three main TAG: OOO + PLP + PoPP, SOL + POO and OOL + LnPP and six secondary TAG: SLL+PLO, SOO, POP, OLL, OOLn + PoOL, and POS + SLS. Furthermore, small amounts (<1.0%) of seven TAG: PLL + PoPoO, PoOP + SpoL + SOLn + SpoPo, OLLn + PoLL, LLL, PoOO, PLLn and POLn + PpoPO + PpoL were also identified in all analyzed samples. OOO was the major TAG found in all varieties from all areas, presented a range from 30.32 to 32.90%. Followed by POO triacylglyceride, which presented a range from 26.45 to 28.36%. Then OOL came in the following representing a range from 12.00 to 13.91%. Results revealed that, there were significant differences among varieties in our study in terms of TAG contents. Moreover, these results are in accordance with those found in the fatty acid composition. At the same time significant differences were clearly found in POO, LLL TAG beside ECN42 values obtained by HPLC analysis.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 963-968 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.13

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Effects of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on Pre-harvest Fruit Drop and Quality of Washington navel orange

El- Khayat H.M.

ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 seasons in order to study the effects of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG at100.200 and 300mg/L) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA at 20 mg/L) applied in February and August on pre-harvest fruit drop and Quality of Washington navel budded on sour orange cultivated in a commercial orchard located in Nobaria region Behera
Governorate, Egypt. Using AVG delay harvest three weeks, as well as the obtained data showed that AVG and NAA treatments reduced pre-harvest fruit drop and increased yield , fruit weight and numbers , fruit firmness, peel thickness, fruit length fruit diameter and Juice volume compared to the control trees . In the meantime, significant enhancement in fruit chemical characteristics was obtained by spraying the different treatments in both seasons, the percentage of TSS, acidity and vitamin C Similarly, an increase in total and non-reducing sugars whereas a decrease in soluble solids/acid ratio and reducing sugars content. AVG at 300mg/L treatment gave the highest of all previous parameters compared with the other treatments. However, spraying NAA gave the lowest except that of fruit length and TSS /acid ratio, in both seasons. AVG (ReTain®) used in this study could be of great economic benefit to growers by reduce per-harvest drop increase yield, improve fruit physical and chemical parameters of fruit and retain fruit quality.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 969-984 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.14

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Enhancing Extractable Phosphorus from Phosphate Rock in Some Soils by Amending With: Organic Acids, Sulfur, Farmyard Manure, Ammonium Thiosulfate and Phosphate Solublizing Bacteria

A.S. Taalab, Sh. Sh. Holah, S.T. Abu Zeid, Hanan S. Siam and Eman A. Abd El- Rahman

ABSTRACT: Phosphorus is an important plant nutrient and therefore has a major impact on the productivity of agriculture. Phosphate rock is spread as natural mined rock in many locations around the globe and in Egypt's western desert. Depending on the source of the mine, the significance of phosphate rock is linked to its elevated phosphorous element content from 16 to 25 percent of P2O5. Many approaches and techniques have been followed for the treatments of phosphate rock to get benefits of its content from extractable phosphorous. A set of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate phosphate-dissolution ability from phosphate rock (PR) in clayey and sandy soils as a function of incubation time. The different amendments used in this study oxalic acid (OA), citric acid (CA), sulfur (S0), farmyard manure (FYM), ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) and phosphate solublizing bacteria (PSB) and incubated at 25°C for 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days. The obtained results indicated that the availability of P from phosphate rock was increased by increasing incubation time up to 70 days. The useful data gained refers to the fact that blending organic acids, sulfur, ATS, FYM or PSB with phosphate rock considerably significantly enhanced extractable P over PR alone. In example, incubation PR with oxalic acid increased extractable P in clay and sandy soil by 3.49 and 5.2 times that of the treatment PR alone, respectively. Moreover, pH of all the added amendments in clayey and sandy soils tended to decline with time, except control, PR or SSP. In comparison with PR alone, the pH obtained from PR with oxalic, citric, sulfur, ATS, FYM and PSB decreased significantly at the end of incubation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 985-995 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.15

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Effect of foliar application with putrescine, salicylic and ascorbic acid on vegetative growth, leaf chemical composition, flowering and fruit set of Picual olive trees

Abd-Alhamid, N., H.S.A. Hassan, Rawheya B.M.A. Aly, A.M. Hassan and Laila F. Hagagg

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out during 2017 and 2018 seasons on adult Picual olive cv. (8 years old) in a private orchard located at Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Trees are grown in sandy soil, under drip irrigation system, uniform in shape and received the common horticultural practices, therefore, this work aims to study the effect of spraying different concentrations and dates spray of putrescine, salicylic and ascorbic acid for two times on vegetative growth, leaf chemical composition and flowering of Picual olive trees. Results indicated that all different spraying treatments at different spraying dates had a positive effect on vegetative growth, leaves mineral contents and flowering in comparison with the control. Treatment of putrescine at 15 ppm + salicylic acid at 200 ppm + ascorbic acid at 2000 ppm were the most effective treatments to increase vegetative growth, leaves minerals content, flowering and final fruit set. Thus, these treatments can be recommended for commercial use under similar conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 996-1012 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.16

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Effect of Cobalt and Different Organic Fertilizers on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production

Nadia Gad and Mohamed K. Rakha

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out to study the influence of cobalt (0, 8 ppm) and different organic fertilizers sources (Control, Chicken manure, Farmyard manure and Cotton compost waste) on cowpea production. Experiments were conducted at Research and Production Station, National Research Centre, El-Nubaria region, Behera Governorate, Delta Egypt, in two successive seasons of 2016 and 2017 under drip irrigation system. The experimental design was a split plot design with three
replications. The obtained results can be summarized as the following: -Cobalt supplement significantly increased nitrogenase enzyme activity which was parallel and related to the increased nodules number, weights and its efficiency especially with chicken manure. -The superior cowpea growth and yield parameters were attained in plants which supplied with 8 ppm cobalt and chicken manure followed by farmyard manure while cotton compost was the lowest ones. -Application of cobalt at 8 ppm to all studied organic fertilizers enhanced cowpea nodulation rate, growth and seeds yield quantity and its quality.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1013-1022 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.17

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Assessment of economic damage thresholds of some pests infesting tomato crop and its impact on losses in Egypt

Mona. I. Ammar, Gaziea, M. Soliman, U. S. Elkelany and Hammam M. A. Nasser

ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out for two successive seasons (2017 and 2018) at EL- Giza Governorate. In both seasons tomato plant of variety "Elisa" were cultivated to obtain different levels of infestation by Tomato leafminer (TLM) Tuta absoluta and the root- knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita of tomato plants were sprayed periodically with (Abamectin benzoate). Results showed that the obtained correlation "r" values indicating a strong negative relationship between the density of infestation (T. absoluta and M. incognita) and the corresponding crop yield of tomato produced. Economic threshold levels and economic injury level of T. absoluta and M. incognita to be used as a tool for controlling under field conditions were determined. Data indicated that economic threshold
Level (E.T.L)] for (TLM) was 40 to 49 larvae / 20 leaves, and the economic injury level (E.I.L)] was 49 to 84 larvae / 20 leaves whereas at this level of infestation control measures must be applied. M. incognita soil naturally infected with nematodes, data indicated that (E.T.L) was 95 to 114 J2/200 g soil. The (E.I.L) was 114 to 170 J2/200 g soil whereas at this level of infestation control measures must be applied. Mean number of galls of M. incognita data indicated that (E.T.L) was 119 to 183 galls/ plant and ( E.I.L) was 183 to 293 galls/plant whereas at this level of infestation control measures must be applied. For egg-masses of M. incognita, data indicated that (E.T.L) was 101 to 162 egg-mass/plants and (E.I.L) was 162 to 260 egg-mass/plants whereas at this level of infestation control measures must be applied. the results of the economic evaluation should be recommended to rely on the fourth treatment current experiments that advice for spraying the bio-pesticide to control pests four times according to the technical recommendation that had positive impact on the net return and profits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1023-1037 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.18

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Identification of drought‐ tolerant sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) lines and effect of drought stress on Xanthium strumarium and Cynodon dactylon weeds

Anter, A.S.

ABSTRACT: Drought and weeds are both of the most important abiotic and biotic stresses that affect sesame yield under Egyptian conditions. And climate change requires plant varieties with more adapted to drought for sustainable development where drought-tolerant varieties will offer great yield stability and possibly reduced the weed competition. The objectives of this study were to identify high yielding, to investigate reaction to drought stress of six advanced lines of sesame (F8 and F9 generations) along with commercial cultivar Shandaweel (C) and the effect of drought on Xanthium strumarium and Cynodon dactylon weeds to the extent cultivated of sesame in the marginal lands. The study was applied over two seasons (2016 -2017) at the Agriculture Experiments and Research Station, Cairo University. Genotypes arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates under drought and normal conditions. Five traits, days to maturity based on plot, seed yield acre-1, oil percentage, oil yield acre-1 and root-shoot length ratio and the dry weight of X. strumarium and C. dactylon weeds calculated. Genotypes showed a highly significant variation (p < 0.05) for all the studied traits except day to maturity under drought conditions in the 2016 season. Three traits, oil yield acre-1, seed yield acre-1, and root-shoot length ratio recorded the higher values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability connected with high heritability and genetic advanced indicating that additive gene action was controlling in them. Two lines C1.6 and C1.8 were earlier, on average, than C by 5.2 and 5.3 days in F8 and F9 generations respectively. Mean performance of the line C3.8 for three traits, seed yield acre-1 (624.1 kg), oil yield acre-1 (316.0 kg) and root-shoot ratio length (66%) was higher than other genotypes under normal and drought conditions consequently, classified as drought tolerant. Correlation coefficients results indicated that a direct selection for seed yield would be effective to identify drought-tolerant sesame varieties under drought conditions. Also, lines have negative effects on the dry weight of X. strumarium and C. dactylon weeds under drought conditions. To confirm these results, several locations and years are needed to estimate the interaction between lines and two weeds. Finally, line C3.8 offering prospects to the form of new varieties having high-yield, highly drought tolerant and compatible with stored moisture environments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1038-1046 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.19

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Impact of Spraying Lithovit and Different Irrigation Levels on Growth, Blooming and Fruit Setting of Manzanello Olive (Olea Europaea L.) Cultivar

Dobiea I.M., H.E.M. El-Badawy, S.F. El-Gioushy and A.A.H. Hegazy

ABSTRACT: Water stress is one of the main challenges which constrain olive cultivation in reclaimed area in Egypt. It can impair the growth and production performance of olives. Many investigations recommended spraying Lithovit to reduce the effect of water stress. We believe that we have designed an innovative solution to follow up the effect of spraying Lithovit (Ca CO3 & Mg CO3) on olive trees which exposure to different irrigation levels. Four concentrations of Lithovit were sprayed on olive (Olea europaea var. Manzanello) trees (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/L) under three irrigation levels (50, 75 and 100% of evapotranspiration for crop “ETc”) during 2017, 2018 seasons. Strong evidence of irrigation at 75% of ETc was found on olive growth, blooming and fruit setting. It was the best irrigation level to balance between vegetative growth and blooming. Moreover, there were significant variations between spraying Lithovit at 2 g/L and other concentrations on Blooming and fruit setting. Furthermore, the interaction between spraying Lithovit and irrigation levels cleared that spraying Lithovit at 2g/L and irrigation at 75% of ETc enhanced blooming and fruit setting. On the other hand irrigation at 100% of ETc with spraying Lithovit at 2g/L improved the vegetative characteristics.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1047-1056 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.20

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Lactoferrin addition to Tris-extender reduces the detrimental effects of cryopreservation on Egyptian buffalo semen

Hussein Y.S., Shaba M.I. and El-Sheshtawy R.I.

ABSTRACT: The freeze-thaw process results in structural and functional damages caused by over accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Addition of exogenous antioxidants to semen extender is of a great importance to overcome the oxidative damage during the freezing protocol. Objective: To evaluate the effect of tris-extender supplemented with a different concentrations of Lactoferrin on buffalo bull semen preservability. Methods: Different concentrations of lactoferrin (2mg/ml, 4mg/ml and 6mg/ml) were added to tubes containing Tris–citrate egg yolk extender with 20% (v/v) egg yolk and 7% (v/v) glycerol. The control tubes were Tris containing (0 lactoferrin). The extended semen was subjected to semen freezing protocol. Semen assessment including motility, viability%, abnormality%, intact of sperm membrane (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and acrosome status were carried out for both cooled and frozen semen. Results: The post cooling results revealed non-significant improvement in sperm membrane integrity (HOST) of all used lactoferrin concentrations, especially for TL1 (72.46±0.46) compared to control (56.61±8.93). Other sperm parameters were kept as the control. After thawing, sperm motility exhibited improvement (P<0.009) for all concentrations of the used lactoferrin addition (58.33±1.66, 51.66±1.66 and 53.33±3.33 respectively) as compared to the control (43.33±1.66). Sperm viability percent was improved (P<0.002) in TL1 (86.66±1.66) when compared to the control (80.66±0.66). Moreover, a significant reduction (P<0.004) in sperm abnormalities were observed in TL1 (8.66±0.33) and TL3 (8.33±0.33) when compared to the control (10.33±0.33). Sperm membrane integrity (HOST, 57.48±11.68, 58.37±3.72 and 69.51±3.91) was kept as the control (57.90±0.27) and acrosome intact percent (89.33±1.15, 88.66±3.21 and 89.66±4.50) was maintained as control (87.50±5.00). Conclusions: The concentration of lactoferrin (TL1, 2mg/ml extender) exhibited the best sperm quality in post-thawed semen process.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1057-1062 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.21

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Exogenous application of 24-epibrassinolide and spermine improves growth and yield of drought stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Zeid F. A., El Shihy O. M. and Ibrahim F. A.

ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of 24- epibrassinolide (EBL) and spermine (Spm) on growth, yield, chemical constituents and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in wheat plants subjected to drought stress conditions. Wheat plants of cv. Giza 168 were subjected to well-watered conditions and drought stress conditions (75% and 50% of field capacity) with and without (0.5 μM EBL + 100 μM Spm) foliar application at 45 and 75 days after sowing during two successive seasons 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Drought stress significantly reduced relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index, concentration of total chlorophylls, total crude protein, growth, and yield of wheat plants, particularly under 50% of field capacity. However, foliar application (0.5 μM EBL + 100 μM Spm) significantly improved the above parameters in drought stressed wheat plants. Moreover, drought stress significantly increased lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and concentration of total sugars, total free amino acids, glycinebetaine and proline in wheat plants. However, lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage were significantly decreased in stressed plants treated with foliar application, meanwhile, concentration of total sugars, total free amino acids, glycinebetaine and proline were significantly increased. The activity of antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase, were slightly increased in response to drought treatments, while they significantly increased in response to foliar application in drought stressed wheat plants. The obtained results in this study confirmed the effective influences of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and spermine (Spm) for improving drought tolerance of wheat plant by increasing osmopotectants and enhancing ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery which resposible for protecting cell enzymes, organelles and cell membranes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1063-1080 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.22

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Effect of some fertigation treatments and magnetized water on Valencia orange trees growing under saline conditions

El-Khayat H.M. and Abdellwahd S.M.

ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted during 2018 and 2019 on seven years Valencia orange trees in a private orchard in Nubaria, Behera governorate, Egypt to evaluate the effect of magnetically treated irrigation water (MTW) and well water either alone or with adding humic acid, calcium silicate and microorganisms on the leaf mineral, carbohydrate and proline contents, vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality .The results indicated that using magnetized water and all other treatments gave a significant increase in the studied growth parameters as well as tree yield and fruit quality.The magnetized water plus magnetite treatment increased leaf phosphorus and iron. Trees treated with magnetized water plus humic acid had the highest new shoot numbers, TSS,TSS/acidity content and juice weight, as well as the lowest peel thickness. Magnetized water plus calcium silicate gave the highest leaf area, tree yield, fruit diameter, fruit firmness and leaf silicon content. Magnetized water plus Microorganism consists of mixture of yeast - photosynthetic and lactic bacteria and sterptomycetes (EM) treatment caused the most height of tree, Canopy circumference, trunk circumference, and leaf nitrogen and zinc. Mgnetized water plus calcium silicate and magnetized water plus EM treatments showed the highest leaf carbohydrate and fruit vitamin C content. Magnetized water plus humic acid and magnetized water plus EM treatments gave the highest leaf potassium. Fruit weight was highest by magnetized water plus humic acid and magnetized water plus magnetite. It has been concluded that use of magnetized water technique with humic acid, silicon and EM applications would be an economically and safe alternative tool to solve the problem of irrigating with saline water and to enhance orange tree growth and productivity grown under similar conditions of the present study.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1081-1101 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.23

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Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on inducing salt tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L) plants

Essam Hoballah, Taghreed E. Eissa and Magdy A. Barsoom


ABSTRACT: To improve the growth, flowering of sunflower plants (Helianthus annus L) cv. "Suntastic" under saline conditions this study was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Ornamental Plant Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Egypt in March of the two seasons, 2017-2018 and 2018/2019, by using three isolates (Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus megatherium and Pseudomonas fluorescence) applied separately under different salinity (NaCl) levels (0.00, 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm). Under a randomized complete block design, the obtained results concluded that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) give successful vegetative growth with good flowering characters and induced salt tolerance in (Helianthus annus L.) plants. So, bacterial isolate Bacillus megatherium conformed better vegetative growth and flowering as compared to isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescence and Azospirillum brasilense. The performance of mixture treatment was below as compared to separate inoculation of PGPR isolates. The decrease in growth at higher levels of salinity caused both hyperionic and hyperosmotic stressed, and can lead to plant demise. From the obtained results it could be recommended to use Bacillus megatherium for inducing salt tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L) cv. "Suntastic" under high salinity levels and give successful vegetative growth with good flowering
characters.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1102-1116 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.24

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Effect of different irrigation period and potassium humate on some soil properties and carrot productivity under saline soil conditions

AbdElghany S.H., Shereen A.H. Saad, A. A. Arafat and Shaban Kh

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted in the farm of Sahl El-Hussinia Agricultural Research Station, El-Sharkia Governorate, Egypt during 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 winter seasons. The impact of potassium humate at different rates (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/L) and irrigation water at different periods 10, 15, and 20 days applied during growth period was studied on some physical and chemical soil properties and Carrot (Daucus carota L.) productivity under saline soil conditions. The obtained results stated that soil pH changed to slightly or moderately alkaline conditions ranged between 8.27 and 8.05. Soil salinity (ECdSm-1) values tended to decrease by increasing potassium humate applied and decreasing the irrigation period, the study showed that 10 days irrigation period gave the highest effects on soil salinity than other periods tested. Also, it emphasized that irrigation water periods and increasing of potassium humate applied significantly increased availability of some macro and micronutrients represented by N, P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn contents in soil after harvest of carrot. This increase led to increase these nutrients in leaves and roots of carrot plants beside weight of fresh roots and the total yield (ton/fed). The study implies application of potassium humate at 6g/l and 10 days irrigation period was the best treatment over the two seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1117-1127 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.25

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Effect of Foliar Applications of Anti-Heat Stress Treatments on Yield and Fruit Quality of Balady Mandarin and their Effect on Yoghurt

Manal A. Zaky and Meranda A. Tawfek

ABSTRACT Heat stress caused during high temperature and direct solar radiation. Subsequently, sunburn occurred and caused allot of problems, which lead to significant economic losses in Balady mandarin crop. Trees were treated with Kaolin 3% twice, and kaolin 6% to study the effect of kaolin as an antiheat stress on fruit quality of Balady mandarin trees during the two seasons (2016 and 2017). These treatments caused an increase in fruit production as well as fruit quality (weight, volume, diameter, and length). Also treatments caused enhancement in the chemical composition of mandarin fruits, expressed as total sugar, acidity, fibers, protein, TSS/TA ratio and TSS%. Moreover, fruits juice from treated trees were used for preparing mandarin flavored yoghurt. The results showed that kaolin treatments improved the rheological characteristics and the total acceptability of yoghurt. From the obtained results, it is recommended to: carry out foliar application of Balady mandarin, cultivated in newly reclaimed lands with Kaolin at 6% concentration at mid-June to significantly increase fruits quality and the ability to produce mandarin flavored yoghurt, consequently increase the add value to the fruits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1128-1136 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.26

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Identification of the physio-chemical processes controlling the composition of groundwater at Wadi El Tumilat area, East Nile Delta, Egypt

Eslam R. Soliman, Reda G.M. Ibrahim, Eglal R. Souaya, Yousra H. Kotp and Khairia A. Gindy

ABSTRACT: Wadi El Tumilat is located to the northeast of Cairo and to the west of Ismailia City. The Quaternary deposits represent the main water-bearing formation at depths range from 5 to 70 m. The aquifer matrix is built up from fluviatile and fluviomarine graded sand and gravel with clay intercalations of limited extension. It rests directly with unconformity surface on the Miocene hard limestone. This aquifer is recharged mainly from surface water system especially Ismailia and El Manaief canals and to less extent from the upward leakage from the Miocene aquifer at the southern part of the study area. The connection between the two aquifers is highly controlled by the presence of deep-seated faults. The groundwater extracted from the Quaternary aquifer is mainly fresh to brackish (TDS= 194.7 to 4916.4 mg/l), while only 10% of samples are saline (TDS=5380 to 6407.6 mg/l). The main objective of the present study is to delineate the main hydrogeochemical and hydrological processes affecting groundwater quality using the conventional geochemical tools and multivariate statistical techniques. Box plots are also used to show the content and distribution of major constituents in the investigated groundwater. The ionic ratios and statistical analyses showed that ion exchange (mainly of reverse type), silicate weathering, evaporation and mixing with surface water and/or Miocene groundwater are the main dominant processes controlling the groundwater quality of the Quaternary aquifer at Wadi El Tumilat area. Future study of the hydrogeochemistry of this aquifer will consider the quantitative assessment of the prevailing hydrogeochemical processes especially evaporation and mixing using appropriate geochemical modeling technique.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1137-1160 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.27

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