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October-December, 2019

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Evaluation of Efficiency and Response of Quinoa Plant to Nitrogen Fertilization levels

Abdulrahman M. Almadini, Ayman E. Badran and Abdullah M. Algosaibi

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of the quinoa yield to nitrogen (N) fertilization, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) as well as the correlation coefficient to determine the important traits that contribute in determining the productivity of quinoa crop. Three levels of N fertilizer (i.e., 0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1) were used and laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The results showed that all tested characteristics were significantly increased with increasing N fertilizer treatments showing grain yields per plant varying from 2.48 to 18.08 g plant-1 and grain yields per hectare ranging from 101.23 to 770.2 kg ha-1. In contrast, NUE was significantly reduced with increasing N fertilizer rates from 5.52 to 4.31. The results indicated that there were significant effects of treatments on some chemical components in grains at 0 and 160 kg N ha-1 (i.e., 14.81 and 17.13% protein respectively); N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents in grains, roots and stem. According to the correlation between the vegetative traits and grain yield kg ha-1 varied from 0.95 for no. of leaves plant-1 to 0.99 for chlorophyll content, fresh weight plant-1 as well as leaf area. Also, the simple correlation among agronomic and chemical traits had significant and positive relations with the grain yield kg ha-1 under the investigated N treatments with an exception of P content that recorded a relatively high negative correlation with grain yield ha-1 (-0.589). It may be concluded from obtained results that dry weight as a vegetative trait, grain yield plant-1 as an agronomic trait and the ash as a chemical trait should be taking in considerations suggesting the importance of direct selection for these traits as important ones with grain yield ha-1 under studied treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 839-849 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.1

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Heavy metals, Sources, Chemistry, risks and best applicable approach for remediation of contaminated soils: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., A.A. E-Sayed, Yassen A.A. Sahar M. Zaghloul and A. Khater

ABSTRACT: Heavy metals represent a portion of important environmental pollutants that can causes significant damage to the environment and human health as their solubility and mobility. Main sources of soil contamination are reviewed. Selection the most appropriate soil and sediments remediation technology depends upon soil characteristics, type of pollutant and concentration to be removed and the end use of contaminated medium. This paper will review both approaches and technologies of removing contaminants from eco-system. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils is necessary to at least minimize the affiliated risks, and make land resource always available for agricultural production, enhancing food security and scale down land interval problems arising from changes in the land use pattern. The main technologies were found to be used for heavy metals removal from contaminated soils are: solidification/stabilization (S/S), electro kinetics and in-situ extraction. Soil characteristics, especially texture, organic matter and pH are of great importance in selecting the most appropriate remediation method. Phytoremediation can be also used. The principles, advantages and disadvantages of soil remediation techniques, which are frequently listed among the best-demonstrated available technologies for cleaning up heavy metal contaminated sites, are presented.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 850-865 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.2

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Microbial Diversity in Skin and Soft Tissue Infection Bacteria Isolated from Two Different Geographical Regions in Egypt

Youssef E. A. Mawgoud, Doaa M. Ghaith, Mohamed E.A. Dawoud and Mohamed H. Hussein

ABSTRACT: This investigation aimed to study the variations of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) bacteria from two different geographical and social areas. Along one year, 50 samples were collected from Sharm El-Sheikh and 50 from El-Sheikh Zaid .The number of bacterial infections in El- Sheikh Zaied 34 of 50 patients (68%) that considered higher than in Sharm El- Sheikh City 21 of 50 patients (48%). The infected females were more than males in both cities. Screening and identification of isolated pathogenic bacteria based on morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. Molecular-based identification using 16S rDNA gene sequencing was conducted to emphasize the biochemical and genetical differences between isolates belonging to the same genus in both areas. There was a marked diversity in number and species of isolated bacteria. Out of 21 pathogenic bacteria isolated and identified from Sharm El- Sheikh, 7 were Staphylococcus aureus, 7 Klebseilla spp., 4 Pseudomonas spp. and 3 E. coli. Furthermore, the 34 pathogenic bacteria detected in El-sheikh Zaied included 10 Klebseilla spp. isolates, 9 Pseudomonas spp., 6 Acinetobacter spp., 3 Escherichia coli, 3 Proteus spp., 2 Staphylococcus aureus and one Morganella morganii.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 866-871 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.3

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The dual inoculation with Rhizobium sp. and cyanobacterial extracts enhances the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) responses to white rot disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Nagwa M. M. El-Khateeb and Yasser Nehela

ABSTRACT: In this study, laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the suppression effect of two biocontrol agents caynobacterial (Spirulina sp., Nostoc linckia and Anabaena variabilis) extracts, along with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in common bean plants. Four isolates of S. sclerotiorum were tested for pathogenicity in bean plants, and all isolated fungi proved to be pathogenic and caused white rot symptoms. Results of in vitro studies showed that algal extracts significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogen when compared to the untreated control. N. linckia gave the highest reduction (56.29%), followed by A. variabilis (51.85%) and Spirulina sp. (45.93%), respectively compared to control (0%). In greenhouse experiments, the combined effect of Rhizobium sp. and cyanobacterial extracts significantly reduced disease incidence and severity under artificial infection with S. sclerotiorum. The treatments showed the maximum effects for controlling disease incidence and severity caused by S. sclerotiorum, which were in the range of 13.33 to 26.67 % and 1.24 to 1.82, compared to 73.33 and 4.50 % in infested control, respectively. In addition, these treatments increased number of nodules, plant height, root length, fresh and dry weight of shoots, N2 % and total nitrogen compared to control. The effects were
similar to those of the fungicide Vitavax, which reduced the disease incidence and severity but adversely affected Rhizobium sp. and the symbiotic N2 fixing parameters. Considerable increases in activity of oxidative reductive enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) were recorded in plants grown from treated bean seeds.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 872-887 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.4

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Evaluation of Photosynthetic Capacity and Grain Yield of the Sea Level Quinoa Variety Titicaca Grown in a Highland Region of Northwest Argentine

Juan A. González, Sven E. Jacobsen, Sebastián E. Buedo, Luis E. Erazzú, Daniela A. González and Fernando E. Prado

ABSTRACT: Photosynthetic characterization of the quinoa cultivar Titicaca grown at the Encalilla site (1995 m asl), a high mountain valley of the Argentinean Northwest, is described in this study. Titicaca cultivar, bred in Denmark from Chilean and Peruvian parenteral lines, is a promising short cycle cultivar and daylength neutral photoperiod. Results showed that maximal photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (Amax) and stomatal conductance (gs) were similar to other quinoa varieties. However, carboxilation capacity and leaf transpiration (E) were significantly higher in Titicaca cultivar compared with other quinoa cultivars grown in the same place. Assimilation of CO2 and stomatal conductance exhibited a strong correlation, like that occurs between (E) and (gs). Light saturation point (LSP) and light compensation point (LCP) were higher in relation to other quinoa cultivars. Grain yield of 2.35 and 2.51 g/plant was recorded and indicating a well adaptation to arid climatic conditions of the Argentinean Northwest region. The highest value of UV protective pigments found in Titicaca will be explained by solar irradiance in the grown area in relation to Denmark conditions. Grain yield, harvest index and some physiological parameters suggested a good adaptation of the Titicaca quinoa cultivar to high mountain valleys of the Argentina Northwest. This means that Titicaca may be considered as a good alternative for farmers in order to get similar production in less time.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 888-900 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.5

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Investigation of the periodontal health status of group Libyan children using a novel gingivitis extent and severity indices: with reference to microbial gingival pathogens

Fowziya M. Ali, Miftah S.M. Najm

ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is extremely common oral disease among dentate population. The occurrence and degree of severity of periodontitis is closely related to the early control of gingivitis at early stages of life. This study was aimed to investigate the periodontal health status of Libyan children group who attending children department at the faculty of dentistry at University of Benghazi. Also to validate using gingivitis extent (GE) and gingivitis severity (GS).in evaluating periodontal status of various group children. to serve as a data base for future studies. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and eight children (mean age of 8.0) were included in the study. The samples were subdivided into 3 age groups (42 children in <6yrs old, mixed dentition 6-12 yrs old n=139) and older group (>12 yrs old n= 27). Non-invasive and simplified procedures to examine their periodontal health and caries experience were used. Both the extent and the degree of gingivitis severity were assessed in the incisor area of the maxilla and the incisor and canine area of the mandible in the anterior teeth by using gingivitis extent (GE) and gingivitis severity (GS) indices. The individual gingival units (papillae (P), Margins (M) and attached gingivae (A) were assessed for the presence of inflammation based on visual examinations. The extent of inflammation was measured by scoring the colour change of the most severe gingival unit in both index teeth and forming a mean for both jaws. The caries experience was assessed by using dmft for deciduous teeth and DMFT for permanent teeth. Gngivitis extent and gingivitis severity indices were assessed and majority 206 (99%) out of 208 of children suffered from different degrees of gingival inflammation. Conclusion: There has been more untreated caries and more pronounced gingival inflammations of various degrees in this sample due to the lack of proper dental care.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 901-905 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.6

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