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Jan-March, 2020

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Prevalence of dental caries among a group of Egyptian children at Al-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt

Ghada Salem, Rasha Sharaf , Mohamed Abo Elyazeed, Omnia Alhiny, Ehab Radwan and Hend Salah

ABSTRACT: Dental caries is the most common problem that affect populations especially the children. This study was conducted to evaluate dental caries prevalence in a group of Egyptian children at Al-Fayoum Governorate. Oral examination was done by a well-trained and calibrated clinician according to WHO criteria. The included subjects in this study was 978 children. 393 of them have primary dentition (aged from 6-9 years), and 585 of them have permanent dentition (aged from 9-12years). The prevalence of caries in primary and permanent dentition was 62.15%. This percentage is quietly and the need of continues oral health care among Al Fayoum children is a must.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.1

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Seed Priming Technique as Innovation to Improve Germination in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

Matthew Aluko, Olufemi J. Ayodele, Ayodeji E. Salami, Oluwabukola E.Olaleye

ABSTRACT: The onion production in south-west agro-ecological zone of Nigeria can be realized through the adoption of techniques that ensure rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence. The effects of priming were assessed on onion seed germination and seedling emergence in a pot study at the Teaching and Research Farm of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The priming media were: ascorbic acid (AA), sodium chloride (NaCl) and moringa leaf extract (MLE) at two concentrations (12.5 and 25%) and water. Onion seeds (Red Creole variety) were soaked in the media for 6 and 12 hours, removed, washed; air dried for 0, 24 and 48 hours; and sowed into pots. Data were collected on emergence percentage (EP), mean emergence time (MET), emergence index (EI) and time to 50 % emergence (T50) for 15 days after sowing (DAS). The results show that the priming media, concentrations and soaking durations differed significantly from the control (P<0.05) while the MET, EI and T50 did not differ. AA at 12.5 and 25% gave the highest EP (72.00 and 73.67% respectively) while seeds soaked in MLE for six hours gave the highest EP at 6 DAS (3.67 %). Seed re-drying resulted in lower EP except in seeds soaked in NaCl. AA and MLE which gave better seeds emergence can be readily adopted as effective and environment-friendly alternatives to popular priming strategies used to enhance onion seed germination.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-17 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.2

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Effect of zeolite and urea fertilizer on maize grown under saline conditions

M. Aboul-Magd, K. A. Elzopy and Z. R. M. Zangana

ABSTRACT: Saline soil is one of the major abiotic stresses that minify plant growth and crop productivity in arid and semiarid regions. A pot experiment was conducted during the summer season of 2019 to evaluate the effect of zeolite and urea fertilizer on growth and yield of maize grown under saline conditions. The experiment design was Factorial RCBD with four replicates, the first factor was zeolite level {0 (control), 2, 4 and 6 %} and the second factor was urea fertilizer level {0 (control), 30, 60 and 90 kg N/fed}. Results showed a significant increase in the vegetative growth characteristics of maize i.e. plant height, fresh and dry weight, total chlorophyll (SPAD), and leaf area under zeolite application treatments as compared with control (0% zeolite). Among the studied zeolite rates, 6% zeolite treatment resulted the highest vegetative growth parameters. Moreover, the application of urea fertilizer at 90 kg N/fed recorded the highest values of vegetative growth parameters, as compared with untreated treatment (control) which gave the lowest values of these traits. Zeolite application also enhanced plant NPK content and soil available NPK as compared with the untreated soil. The highest plant NPK content and soil available NPK were recorded under 6% zeolite rate. Similarly, application of 90 kg N/fed of urea fertilizer produced the highest plant NPK content and soil available NPK as compared with control. These results revealed that zeolite amendment mitigated salt stress, improved plant growth, and enhanced absorbing nutrients by plant and retaining nutrients in soil. The results concluded that zeolite amendment can be an efficient tool to increase crop productivity and food production, reduce nutrient losses and environmental pollution, and to expand the agricultural utilization of the low-quality soil in arid and semi-arid regions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-25 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.3

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Impact of Land Slope and Mineralogical Composition on the Spatial Distribution of Related Elements in some Soils South-east of El-Qattara Depression, Egypt

Bahnasawy, N., El Kady, M., Abou-Shady, A.

ABSTRACT: Grasping influence of land slope gradient and mineralogical composition (MC) on soil chemical contents and their distribution is essential to ensure sustainable agricultural planning and developing pedo-systems. The objectives of this work were to determine spatial variations of total contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al, and investigate the impact of slope gradients and MC on their distribution in some soils Southeast of El Qattara depression, Egypt. Therefore, five soil profiles were selected on the basis of slope gradient which is varied between gently sloping to nearly level. Hornblende (Ho), Epidotes (Ep), Garnet (Ga), and Biotite (Bi) comprised the heavy MC related to the investigated elements in the studied area. The results showed that Ca> Fe> Al> Mg in terms of quantity. Total contents of Ca and Fe decreased in nearly leveled soils and increased in the other gently sloped ones while Al and Mg exhibited reversible trend. Land slope gradient was non-significantly affected the spatial distribution of the studied soil elements when analyzed with ANOVA and multiple comparison tests. Total Ca was significantly positively correlated with Ga only. All related minerals were negatively correlated with Mg concentrations. Ho, Ep, and Bi were negatively correlated with the distribution of Fe. Mineralogical effects on the total contents of Al showed positively correlated with Bi only. These findings can have a significant impact on land use planning and soil management practices, especially when putting fertilizing strategies for obtaining high agricultural productivity within these kinds of arid land.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 26-33 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.4

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Effect of Drying Methods on the Quality of Herb, Essential Oil and Photosynthetic Pigments Content of Summer Savory, Satureja hortensis L. Plants

A.A.A. EL-Sayed, A.S. EL-Leithy, S.H. EL-Hanafy, M. E. Khattab and S.S. Ahmed

ABSTRACT: Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) plant is one of the most promising plants suitable for cultivation in the conditions of Egypt. A filed experiment was carried out at Department of Ornamental Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University and Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, during two successive seasons 2014 and 2015. The aim of this work was to study the effect of different drying methods, sun dry, shade, oven at 45º C and freeze drying at -45º C on the herb dry weight, essential oil percentage, essential oil constituents and chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids content of summer savory plants. The results showed that the highest level of herb dry weights and essential oil percentages were obtained by using shade and oven drying methods. In general, the major essential oil constituents were carvacrol (43.13 - 54.05%) and γ-terpinene (29.37 - 38.07%). The freeze drying method gave the highest value of carvacrol content, but the shade drying gave the highest valueof γ-terpinene content. The other lower percentage components arranged in descending order including ρ-cymene, terpinolene, α-terpinene, α- pinene and α-thujene contents. The photosynthetic pigments contents (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) reached to the highest values by freeze drying method at both cuts during both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 34-43 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.5

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Yield and Yield Components of Two Maize Hybrids as affected by Water Deficit and Arginine

Nabila M. Zaki, Amal G. Ahmed and Hassanein M.S.

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out at private farm Wadi El-Rayyan, El-Fayoum governorate, Egypt, during the two successive summer seasons of 2017 and 2018 to study the effect of skipping one irrigation with or without arginine on yield and yield components of two maize hybrids (Fine Seeds- 101 and T.W. 329). Omitting 5th irrigation + 200 cm3/ fed., arginine gave the highest values followed by control in plant height, ear length (cm), ear diameter (cm), number of row / ear, grain index, grain yield / plant, grain yield / fed., straw yield / fed., and biological yield / fed., while control gave the highest values for straw yield / plant , harvest index, protein and carbohydrate percentage. Fine Seeds- 101 cultivar significantly surpassed T.W. 329 cultivar in plant height (cm), ear length (cm), ear diameter (cm), number of row / ear, grain index, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, protein and carbohydrate percentage in both seasons, while the differences between the two maize cultivars in grain, straw, biological yields per feddan and harvest index were not significant in both seasons. The interaction between maize cultivars and water shortage with or without arginine were not significant in all characters under study except plant height (cm), number of row / ear, grain index, grain yield / plant, biological yield / fed., and carbohydrate percentage in both seasons, where the best treatment was omitting 5th irrigation + 200 cm3 / fed., arginine with Fine Seeds- 101 cultivar.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 44-49 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.6

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Miswak (Salvadora persica) Roots as Antimicrobial and a Potential bioactive component

Abd-Aziz Nadir, Ahmed A. Farrag, Eman A. Helmy and Asmaa S. Ismail

ABSTRACT: Miswak contains important photo-constituents such as vitamin C, salvadorine, salvadourea, alkaloids, trimethylamine, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins, saponins and salts mostly as chlorides, in addition to Sulphur, organic Sulphur compounds and lignan glycosides. Pharmacological studies indicated that, S. persica L. plant possess anti-microbial, anti-plaque, aphrodisiac, alexiteric, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, astringent, diuretic and bitter stomachic activities , anticonvulsant ,and Antiulcer activity , hypoglycemic effect and it reduced body weight as well as the biological effects of Salvadora persica extracts are reviewed. The aim of this study were to evaluation the antimicrobial effect of (10%) water, hexane and ethanol extracts of stem of plant Salvadora persica L.(Miswak) against various foodborne pathogens including(Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Aspergullus niger, Aspergullus flavius, Candida lipolytica and Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) .Concerning the in vitro antioxidant activities of the investigated Salvadora persica L. stem indicated by Mass spectrometry using (DPPH) assay technique. The water extract of Salvadora persica L. Were quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay showed that the water extract had the highest levels of polyphenols Such outcomes corresponded intimately with the levels of aggregate phenols, flavones in tests.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 50-56 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.7

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Comparative Evaluation of the Polyphenol Contents as well as Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Two Geographical Types of Bee Propolis against Some Foodborne Pathogens

Abd-Aziz Nadir, Ahmed A. Farrag, Eman A. Helmy and Asmaa S. Ismail

ABSTRACT: Bee glue called propolis is a dark sticky resinous substance collected by bees from leaf buds, twigs, Trunk wounds and trees. Three different solvent styles according to their polarity, namely; water (WEEP), ethanol (EEEP) and n-hexane (HEEP) utilized as extraction protocols for two-bee propolis purchased from two districts; Egyptian and Turkish. Regarding the antimicrobial activity outputs against the investigated food borne bacteria; the most powerful solvent extraction protocol giving promising results was water (WEEP), showing the highest impact on Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by the ethanol (EEEP) compared to NaNO3 as a commercial standard food preservative. Similarly, as to antimicrobial action yields against the examined food borne filamentous fungi, the most capable dissolvable extraction convention was (WEEP) demonstrating the most elevated effect on Aspergillus flavus; subsequently (EEEP) matched with NaNO3. Concerning, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), water extracted propolis (WEEP) had the lowest inhibitory action compared to (EEEP), (HEEP) as well as to the positive control NaNO3. Relating to the in vitro antioxidant activities of the two-investigated bee propolis types indicated by Mass spectrometry using (DPPH) assay technique, the water extract of the Turkish propolis revealed the highest antioxidant activity showing better radical scavenging abilities than, the remaining extraction protocols. Quantified total phenolic contents of the two-explored bee propolis showed that, the Turkish water extracted bee propolis had the highest levels of polyphenols, compared to the Egyptian one. Such outcomes corresponded intimately with the levels of aggregate phenols, flavones and flavones in tests.This study offers useful information for the usage of propolis as a natural antimicrobial agent to control microbial growth in food products
and might provide an alternative to chemical preservatives.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 57-63 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.8

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Bioaerosols as a Bioidicator of Indoor Air Quality in a Dental Clinic

Omnya A. El-Batrawy and Amany F. Hasaballah

ABSTRACT: Bioaerosols play a significant role in indoor air quality as they can be the cause of health hazards. The study was performed to investigate indoor environment of a selected Dentistry clinic with respect to PM10, and to quantify the frequently observed fungal colonies in indoor and outdoor air. It was found that the indoor air quality with respect to PM10 was critical in the dental clinic because of the use of specific materials for dentistry processes, cleaning activities and the number of occupants. There were a significant differences between the concentrations of the PM10 (μg/m3) and airborne fungi (CFU/m3) at all sampling locations. Aspergillus was the most prevalent fungi in all examined samples. Fungi can be useful indicators of indoor air quality. The existence of Aspergillus in indoor air was assessed as a risk factor in hospitals and clinics due to their ability to cause nosocomial infections and allergies.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 64-73 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.9

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Study the effect of different fuels on the preparation of zinc stannate (ZnSnO3) by sol-gel method and evaluate its optical properties

M.M. Morad, R.M. AbouShahba and M.M. Rashad

ABSTRACT: In this work, ZnSnO3 nanostructures were prepared by the sol-gel method, in this method, EDTA was used as a gelling agent, tartaric acid and glycine were applied as hydrolysis agent. X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample annealed at 400 oC for 3h with EDTA fuel shows that, ZnSnO3 obtained in a pure phase with no detectable secondary phase. ZnSnO3 nanostructures also shows good optical property with maximum absorption was observed at 260 nm with a band gap value of 3.4 eV.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 74-77 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.10

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Isolation and Characterization of Filamentous Fungi Capable of Producing Cellulases from Native Soil in Brazil

Johnata H. Rodrigues, Caio C. de O. Bonfim, Mayara Scheffer, Mariana M.F. do Nascimento, Juliana V. M. Bittencourt and Márcio Silva

ABSTRACT: The isolation of filamentous fungi with cellulase activity from the native soil in Furna do Passo do Pupo 1, located in Ponta Grossa, Brazil, was studied using the soil dilution plate method. Fungi were isolated using the selective culture media for cellulase containing Manachini solution supplemented with carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% (w/v). A total of 10 fungal isolates were obtained using the selective method and identified by using molecular tools as belonging to Mucor genus, six of them belonging to Mucor fragilis species. The cellulase enzymatic index (EI) and growth rates were determined for the selected isolates. All strains showed positive results for cellulase production since they presented EI higher than 2,0 after five days of incubation. Six of them presented higher mycelial growth rates at 48 hours, whereas three of them showed higher rates at 72 hours and one at 96 hours. This study suggests that the native soil harbors fungal species with cellulase activity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 78-85 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.11

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The polyamine spermine in retarding salinity-induced stress in canola

Salwa A. Orabi, Tarek A. El-Shahawy and Faida A. Sharara

ABSTRACT: Salinity is one of the most heightened threats to global agriculture and sustainable development, which is expected to exacerbate by climate change. The current study aims at assessing the effect of a number of salinity concentrations (250 ppm as tap water, 3000 and 6000 ppm) under the use of spermine (0, 50 and 100 ppm) on canola plant, including the oxidative adaptations, growth and yield productivity. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in this context during winter season of (2015/16) in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and three replicates. The use of spermine alone promoted greater vegetative growth and efficient crop production. Under salinity treatment plants appeared stressed, resulting in decadent vegetative growth and poor productivity in particular at the high concentration. Exogenous application of spermine compensated for the low vegetative growth of salt stressed plants, and resulted in more robust plants for seed formation by adjusting the homeostatic equilibrium at cellular and molecular levels. The reversal of inhibitory effect of salinity stress was conferred by triggering the activity of enzymatic [i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidise (APX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] and non-enzymatic [i.e., glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA), total phenols] antioxidant systems as well as reducing oxidants of the detrimental reactive oxygen species (ROS). The greatest values were obtained under the use of spermine at 100 ppm concentration with a conspicuous impact in reducing electrolytes leaked from affected tissues. It follows from this that spermine is significant in neutralizing salinity-induced harmful impacts, and that using it at the proper rate can be quite beneficial in the exploitation of saltwater to irrigate important crops such as canola.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 86-100 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.12

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Effect of Humic and Fulvic Acid on Growth and Yield of two Okra cultivars grown in Wadi El-Tor, south Sinai

M.M.H. Abd El-Baky, M. EL-Desuki, S.R. Salman, Abd El-Wanis Mona M., S.D. Abou-Hussein and M.O. Bakry

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted under the open field conditions of a privet Bedouin farm in Wadi El-Tor, south Sinai governorate, during two seasons 2016 and 2017 to study the influences of different rates of Humic (3 and 5g /L)and Fulvic acid (1.5 and 3 g/L) and combination between them at the rate of 1.5 g/L Fulvic + 3 g/L Humic and 3 g/L Fulvic + 5 g/L Humic acid on growth, yield and N, P and K content of tow Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) cultivars (Balidy and Poorvi). The results showed that high rate of both Fulvic acid and humic acid given higher values of plant height, number of leaves and number of branches as well as fresh and dry weightof leaves and/or branches. As using 5 ml/L of Humic acid also increased significantly fruit set, yield and fruit weight of both cultivars. Also, the high level of humic and Fulvic acid increased significantly of N, P and K content in both cultivars leaves. Poorvi hybrid had great effect on yield and nutrients content of compared with Balidy cultivar at two seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 101-109 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.13

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Characterizations of antagonistic bacteria species against black root rot disease of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

Shewafera Melake, Alemayehu Dugassa, Tesfaye Alemu

ABSTRACT: Faba bean black root rot caused by Fusarium solani is one of the common fungal diseases constraining faba bean production in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to characterize and evaluate the effect of potential indigenous antagonistic bacterial isolates against Fusarium solani under in vitro, and pot experiments. Bacteria were isolated using Nutrient Agar medium from faba bean soil rhizosphere, whereas Fusarium species isolated on Potato Dextrose Agar medium from symptomatic faba bean roots. In vitro dual culture techniques were used to evaluate the antagonistic effect of bacterial isolates against Fusarium species on the Potato Dextrose Agar medium. Subsequently, three bacterial isolates with greatest inhibitions among others were used for efficacy tests in the pot experiments by applying cell suspensions of both pathogens and bioagents in the fourteen days intervals after germination. Under in vitro antagonistic assay, Bacteria SH 1 (47.2%), Bacteria SH 2 (48.01%), and Bacteria SH 7 (65.1%) showed higher inhibition of mycelial growth of Fusarium isolates than others. However, Bacteria SH 1, and Bacteria SH 2 were more effective in suppressing black root rot disease than Bacteria SH7 in pot experiments. Similarly, they were significant in shoot and root growth parameters. Thus, further field efficacy evaluation is recommended to ascertain the antagonistic potential of those promising bacterial isolates.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 110-119 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.14

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Effect of Foliar Application of Boron and Potassium Sources on Yield and Quality of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Magda A. Ewais, Lamyaa A. Abd El-Rahman and Dalia A. Sayed

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted at EL-Gemmiza, Agric. Res. Station, (30º 43 ׳ 22.5 ״ N, 31° ׳ 34 ״ 07 E, elev. 10 m), Agric. Res. Centre, El-Gharbia Governorate, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons of 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 to study the effect of foliar application with different sources of potassium and three rates of boron as well as their interactions on tuber yield and quality (dry matter, starch, reducing sugar, total carbohydrates and specific gravity) of potato cultivar spunta. The experiments were conducted in split design with three replicates. The experiment included fifteen treatments as follows; control (sprayed with tap water), potassium nitrate (46 % K2O), potassium silicate (60 % K2O), potassium humate (10 % K2O) and mono potassium phosphate (34.5 % K2O) were used at 1000 ppm and three rates of boron (control, 50 and 100 ppm) as foliar application. The obtained results showed that the high values of tubers number per plant, tubers weight/plant, total tuber yield and marketable tuber yield were recorded by the plants which sprayed with potassium sources compared to control treatment. Also, the plants which sprayed with 100 ppm boron gave the highest total tuber yield, average tuber weight and marketable tuber yield. Application of boron significantly increased the yield of large and medium grade tubers and decrease proportionately small tubers. Mineral nutrients (N, P, K and B), total carbohydrates, specific gravity and starch content of tuber were significantly affected with foliar spraying with potassium sources than control treatment. In addition, the plants, which sprayed with potassium nitrate (KN) or potassium humate treatments were more effective than the rest treatments on enhancing the yield and yield components. Conclusively, from the obtained data in this study, it can be recommended by foliar spraying with 1000ppm potassium sources to improve growth, number of tubers, yield per plant and total yield. Also, the combination of foliar spraying by potassium sources and 100ppm boron has been found to be highly beneficial in improving potato size, dry matter, average tuber weight, total yield and other quality parameters.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 120-137 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.15

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The Causality Relationship between Nutrition and Economic Growth in Egypt

Ahmed Abou El-Yazid El-Rasoul and Abd El-Atty Mohamed Mahmoud Ali

ABSTRACT: Food is a basic human right, and it affects health, productivity and income, and ultimately it is the basis for achieving sustainable economic growth. Egypt faces many challenges and future problems to achieve food security, as excessive dependence on food imports causes a problem in food security with high levels of malnutrition, reducing human capital development, aggravating the problem of poverty, low labor productivity, and the bottom line is low economic growth. The research aimed to study the causal relationship between nutrition intake and economic growth in Egypt. It was based on time series data for the period 1961-2017, calories per-capita daily intake, real food price index, real GDP per-capita and food production index. The research relied on standard methods for analyzing the time series in question. The most important search results can be summarized as follows:• About 92.6% of the calories a person obtains daily from a plant source, and only about 7.4% of them are from animal and fish sources, which mean that the Egyptian citizen depends more on his food on the component of plant production than his dependence on animal and fish production, and this may be attributed Low per-capita income and widespread poverty, which explains the incidence of malnutrition diseases, especially anemia and stunting, among children.• It was found that the independent variables included in the model are consistent with economic logic, as they collectively explain about 81.8% of the changes in the calories per-capita daily intake during the study period, and that the real GDP per-capita variable is the most influencing the calories per-capita daily intake in Egypt.• Cointegration test indicate that there are two directions for the Cointegration between the study variables, and this result confirms the possibility of a balanced relationship in the long run.• The results of Granger's causal test indicated that there is a one-way causal relationship that extends from both the real food price index, the real GDP per-capita to per-capita nutrition in Egypt, while there is a two-way causal relationship between food production and nutrition intake, that is, each of them causes the other one.• The pulse response function showed that the independent variables have a noticeable effect on the interpretation of the shock response in calories intake, and it has been observed that the calories intake response to recent changes in real GDP per-capita is high. It was found that the condition of stability of the model used in the study was fulfilled by applying the test of the Roots of Characteristic Polynomial.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 138-145 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.16

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Quinoa Crop as an Ingredient of Functional Foods and Its Utilization in Bread Making

M.H. Abdel-Al, Faten F. Abdel-salam and Essam E. Shalaby

ABSTRACT: Special attention has been given in recent years to quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) due to its high nutritional value and high-quality protein content. Quinoa seeds also contain various bioactive substances. Quinoa seed is rich source of phenolic compounds, particularly flavonoids, with healthpromoting and/or disease preventing properties. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal and is a native crop grows in many different regions and under various climate conditions. Quinoa has a broad genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environments. (Jacobsen, 2003). The total phenolic content of quinoa seeds was studied and was 7.79 mg/ g and the flavonoid content in our investigated quinoa variety was 10.21 mg/ g. For bread making, seeds were soaked in tap water overnight for de-bittering. The soaking process stopped when there is no foam formed. Preparing of pan bread was done by using the following ingredients 100 g wheat flour, 1.5 g instant active dry yeast, 2.0 g salt, 2.0 g sugar, 3.0 g shortening and water. And substitute the wheat flour by ratios up to 20% Main results reveal that the loaf specific volume decreased with the substitution with quinoa flour. The panelists found the crumb more dense and compact in bread 20% of quinoa flour compared to the control and also crust colour, crumb colour, and taste attributes. Bread parameters such as loaf specific volume, weight, crust and sensory properties were affected by the incorporation of quinoa, especially at 20% of addition, whereas the nutritional quality was increased. These new bread products were still accepted by the panelists. Quinoa is gluten-free and easy to digest; quinoa flour can used in wheatbased and gluten-free baking. Quinoa grains are used to make flour, soups, breakfast cereals. In conclusion, whole quinoa flour could be a good replacement for wheat flour in bread formulations, increasing the product's nutritional value in terms of dietary fiber, minerals, proteins and healthy fats, with only a small depreciation in bread quality at 15% of flour substitution

[ FULL TEXT PDF 146-157 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.17

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