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Jan-March, 2020

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Prevalence of dental caries among a group of Egyptian children at Al-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt

Ghada Salem, Rasha Sharaf , Mohamed Abo Elyazeed, Omnia Alhiny, Ehab Radwan and Hend Salah

ABSTRACT: Dental caries is the most common problem that affect populations especially the children. This study was conducted to evaluate dental caries prevalence in a group of Egyptian children at Al-Fayoum Governorate. Oral examination was done by a well-trained and calibrated clinician according to WHO criteria. The included subjects in this study was 978 children. 393 of them have primary dentition (aged from 6-9 years), and 585 of them have permanent dentition (aged from 9-12years). The prevalence of caries in primary and permanent dentition was 62.15%. This percentage is quietly and the need of continues oral health care among Al Fayoum children is a must.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.1

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Seed Priming Technique as Innovation to Improve Germination in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

Matthew Aluko, Olufemi J. Ayodele, Ayodeji E. Salami, Oluwabukola E.Olaleye

ABSTRACT: The onion production in south-west agro-ecological zone of Nigeria can be realized through the adoption of techniques that ensure rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence. The effects of priming were assessed on onion seed germination and seedling emergence in a pot study at the Teaching and Research Farm of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The priming media were: ascorbic acid (AA), sodium chloride (NaCl) and moringa leaf extract (MLE) at two concentrations (12.5 and 25%) and water. Onion seeds (Red Creole variety) were soaked in the media for 6 and 12 hours, removed, washed; air dried for 0, 24 and 48 hours; and sowed into pots. Data were collected on emergence percentage (EP), mean emergence time (MET), emergence index (EI) and time to 50 % emergence (T50) for 15 days after sowing (DAS). The results show that the priming media, concentrations and soaking durations differed significantly from the control (P<0.05) while the MET, EI and T50 did not differ. AA at 12.5 and 25% gave the highest EP (72.00 and 73.67% respectively) while seeds soaked in MLE for six hours gave the highest EP at 6 DAS (3.67 %). Seed re-drying resulted in lower EP except in seeds soaked in NaCl. AA and MLE which gave better seeds emergence can be readily adopted as effective and environment-friendly alternatives to popular priming strategies used to enhance onion seed germination.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-17 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.2

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Effect of zeolite and urea fertilizer on maize grown under saline conditions

M. Aboul-Magd, K. A. Elzopy and Z. R. M. Zangana

ABSTRACT: Saline soil is one of the major abiotic stresses that minify plant growth and crop productivity in arid and semiarid regions. A pot experiment was conducted during the summer season of 2019 to evaluate the effect of zeolite and urea fertilizer on growth and yield of maize grown under saline conditions. The experiment design was Factorial RCBD with four replicates, the first factor was zeolite level {0 (control), 2, 4 and 6 %} and the second factor was urea fertilizer level {0 (control), 30, 60 and 90 kg N/fed}. Results showed a significant increase in the vegetative growth characteristics of maize i.e. plant height, fresh and dry weight, total chlorophyll (SPAD), and leaf area under zeolite application treatments as compared with control (0% zeolite). Among the studied zeolite rates, 6% zeolite treatment resulted the highest vegetative growth parameters. Moreover, the application of urea fertilizer at 90 kg N/fed recorded the highest values of vegetative growth parameters, as compared with untreated treatment (control) which gave the lowest values of these traits. Zeolite application also enhanced plant NPK content and soil available NPK as compared with the untreated soil. The highest plant NPK content and soil available NPK were recorded under 6% zeolite rate. Similarly, application of 90 kg N/fed of urea fertilizer produced the highest plant NPK content and soil available NPK as compared with control. These results revealed that zeolite amendment mitigated salt stress, improved plant growth, and enhanced absorbing nutrients by plant and retaining nutrients in soil. The results concluded that zeolite amendment can be an efficient tool to increase crop productivity and food production, reduce nutrient losses and environmental pollution, and to expand the agricultural utilization of the low-quality soil in arid and semi-arid regions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-25 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.1.3

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