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April-June 2021

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Soil assessment for agricultural uses: Case study, selected localities from Wadi Feiran basin, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt

Khaled A. Abdel- Halim, El Shawadfi T.M.M and Abd El-Maboud I.M.A.

ABSTRACT: Wadi Feiran basin lies at the southwestern part of Sinai Peninsula. The considered mega drainage pattern mainly granitic, volcanic, metamorphic, and sedimentary country rocks. The present work aims to study a numbers of parameters to evaluate the soil of Wadi Feiran for agriculture purposes. To achieve this study, thirteen soil profiles and twenty-five water samples were collected during Jan., 2020 from the studied localities and water wells along Feiran basin. All the characteristic and physicochemical parameters of soil (TDS, EC, PH, Na + , Mg +2 , Ca +2 , K + , Cl - , SO4 -2 , CaCO 3- , HCO 3- , SAR, eU, eTh, eK, eRa, Ba, Pb, Nb, V, Rb, Y, Sr, Ga, Zr, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, soil texture, soil water content and organic matter content) as well as groundwater samples were analyzed. The physicochemical parameters of the studied soils showed that, most soil texture of Wadi Feiran soil was sand (59.65% to 91.28%), it have low contents of water and organic matter (0.9-9.9 mg/L), safe limit of radioactivity eU (1-14 ppm) and moderate limits of major ions, TDS (22.4-5564.8 mg/L), PH and EC and low to moderate limit of trace elements except zirconium, barium and chromium. Therefore Wadi Feiran studied soils considered one of the most promising soil profiles for agriculture uses especially those crops that don’t need to large quantities of water due to the habit of soil texture especially at the upper and middle sectors of stream channels.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 368-383 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.30

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Structural Features and Incremental Stress History of the Granites of Wadi Dara Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

Hassan El Sundoly

ABSTRACT: Wadi Dara area, located at the North Eastern Desert of Egypt, is covered by metavolcanics, diorites, granodiorites, Dokhan volcanic, Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Brittle tectonic analysis on the younger granites of Gabal (G.) Dara and G. Umm Swassi have been carried out on 637 field measurements in 22 sites, using Win-Tensor computer program. Analysis of fault slip data revealed that 232 faults (36.4 %) are of extensional (normal), and 405 faults (63.6 %) belong to compressional and allowed computation of 78 paleostress tensors. These tensors are distinguished as 27 tensors corresponding to extensional faulting and 51 tensors corresponding to compressional faulting. The structural elements of younger granites of Gabal Dara and Gabal Umm Swassi were statistically treated and stress analyses were carried out on these structural data to delineate the paleostresses, affected the granites. These granites are subjected to four compressional and four extensional phases. The four compressional phases can be grouped into four main events as the following: E-W to WNW-ESE, NE- SW to ENE-WSW, NW-SE to NNW-SSE and N-S to NNE-SSW compressional events. While the four extensional phases can be grouped into also four main events as the following: N-S to NNE-SSW, NW- SE to NNW-SSE, NE-SW to ENE-WSW and E-W to WNW-ESE extensional event. Significant radioactive anomalies are detected in pegmatites of the younger granites, which occur along NE-SW trend. Radiometric survey for most of these pegmatites gives abnormal measurements reach up to 6000 cps with U content ranging from 600ppm to 900ppm. In these pegmatites, radioactive minerals, recognized under Scanning Electron Microscope, are ishikawaite (U-rich variety of samarskite group) thorite, uranothorite, zircon and allanite. The structural studies at these anomalies of pegmatites indicated that the NW-SE extensional event is the main role for the crystallization of uranium mineralization in the study area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 384-399 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.31

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Amino Acids and its Role in Plant Nutrition and Crop Production. A review

El-Nasharty A.B., A.I. Rezk and S. S. El-Nwehy

ABSTRACT: The importance of important amino acids in increasing crop yield and overall quality is well understood. Amino acid helps in auxin synthesis stimulant for plant growth, stimulates photosynthesis and plays an important role in the early maturity, resistance the stress conditions such as heat, cold, drought and salinity. Also increasing the growth, yield and proper ripening of fruits. In addition, increases the speed of biological processes within the plant, and disease resistance. Amino acids have been shown in studies to affect the physiological processes of plants, either directly or indirectly. Amino acid foliar nutrition improved grain wheat yield by 0.24-0.43 t ha -1 and grain protein content by 0.63-0.74 percentage points. In addition, grain wet gluten value by 5.5 % and sedimentation volume increased by 11.3 %. However, tomato yield increased by 27%, fruit setting by 28%, plant height 41%, leaf area 24% and total chlorophyll content by 44% due to amino acid foliar feeding, the same trend was observed on pepper yield which reached to 76% increment. Foliar application with tryptophan increased orange fruits yields by 30%, number of fruits 3%, fruit weight 50% and fruit size 46%. Drought, salinity, chilling, freezing, and high temperatures are all common adverse growth conditions for plants. These stresses can stall growth and development, lowering productivity. Plants receive amino acids relevant to stress physiology when amino acids are applied before, during, and after stress conditions, which has a preventing and recovering effect.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 400-413 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.32

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An Investigation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Opuntia Stricta Fruit Peels

El-Dreny E.G., Gomaa, M.M and Gomaa, M.A.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to look into the benefit of using prickly pear (Opuntia stricta) fruit peels as a source of dietary fibre, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids, phenols, flavonoids, total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and the impact of adding them to baked goods. In addition to investigate the antimicrobial effect, sensorial evaluation characteristics of these peels at different levels, which are considered plant excrement, plus storage time of the cupcake at room temperature. On the contrary, it is worth noting that increasing the percentage of peels powder enhanced the sensorial properties of the cupcakes. Results also showed that peels of prickly pear fruits had an inhibitory effect on microbial growth and on it; findings suggest the importance of using prickly pear peels to improve and raise the nutritional, microbial, and sensory consistency of bakery products.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 414-420 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.33

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Increase of Biomass in Some Aquatic Plants Grow under Stress with Using Alternative Sources of Water and Use It as Contamination Indicators

Georgena Wahib Rizk Gabra

ABSTRACT: Living organisms are distributed in ideal ecosystems in balanced proportions without prejudice to the existence of each other. The "Eutrophication" phenomena that means biomass aggravation increment of some aquatic plants occurs when increase the dietary excess by organic, inorganic nutrients and elements in water bodies because of sewage water 'wastewater' leakage into them. These aquatic macrophytes play a major role in conservation of the aquatic ecosystem or even aesthetically for some aquarium, ponds and artificial lakes as a part of the botanical gardens, water parks, fish farms and it may spread a lot in slowly flowing canals and rivers. The purpose of this study is to estimate the rates of increase in plants biomass produced under stress of using alternative water sources. Also, using these macrophytes as contamination biomarkers and in phyto-remediation process and what’s for/on it and its impact in/on its presence in fresh water bodies. The most important of these macrophytes are Pistia stratiotes "water lettuce" as floating plant and Ceratophyllum demersum as submerged one. The experiment was carried out in open field of El- Harrery village, El Montaza, at the east of Alexandria, Egypt, during two successive summer seasons 2014 & 2015 for 28, 34 days for each plant respectively. The plant samples were obtained from the National Center for Oceanography and Fisheries, El- Anfoushi, Quiet Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The means of initial weights of plants were average at 47g and 32g wet weight for each plant respectively. The treatments media were Tap Water as a control [TW] - Primary Treated Domestic Wastewater [PTW 15%, 25%] - Ground Well Water [GWW 15%, 25%] - Mix 15%, 25% [TW+PTW+GWW] from full volume 2.5 L of plastic Jars. The treatments were increased by the same concentration when the water evaporated. The results reached to highly significant differences between treatments in vegetative growth parameters, chemical constituents [total chlorophyll, N, P, K in plants tissues]and Na, Cd and Pb in plants treated with PTW 25%, sediment determination and water quality tests [color and turbidity] before and after the same treatment. The treatment of PTW 25% proved its superiority in most vegetative growth parameters in both plants, but it caused that the fastest growing and the most degraded in water lettuce plant. Thus, it can be recommended that these plants can be released as pollution indicators and monitored in their environment and use this in phytoremediation process.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 421-423 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.2.34

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