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April-June 2020

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Antifungal Activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Metabolites against some Phytopathogenic Fungi

Omnia M. Mohamed, Rania A. A. Hussein, Mona H. Badawi and Hussien E. Makboul

ABSTRACT: The effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens culture, culture filtrate and the crude antibiotics extracted from culture filtrate were in vitro studied against six plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium solani, Fusarium semitectium, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Botrytis cinerea). P. fluorescens effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of all fungi in dual culture tests. Also, the culture filtrate at different concentrations reduced the mycelial growth except S. rolfsii. The culture filtrate at the EC50 concentration was effective in reducing the total contents of soluble sugars, free amino acids, total proteins and enzyme activities produced by the phytopathogenic fungi. The antifungal compounds were extracted with equal volume of ethyl acetate. The antifungal
compounds from P. fluorescens at 100 mg ml-1 completely inhibited F. oxysporium and S. rolfsii and purified by column puriflash and re-tested for antifungal activity. The major compound in the crude antibiotics was characterized by TLC, mass spectrometry and FTIR. The molecular weight of this compound was 255.4 m/z. In FTIR analysis, antifungal compound extracted from P. fluorescens
revealed absorption at 3318.13 per cm pyrrole ring and CH3 (stretch) (1450.2) and C=C aromatic weak intensity (1662.44), C-Cl2 (624.81). This confirms that the antifungal compound in crude extract is pyrrolnitrin.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 158-168 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.18

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Reproductive and Neuroprotective Effects of Selenium and Vitamins A, C, E against Mercuric Chloride- Induced Biochemical and Genetic Toxicity in Female Rats

Samah F. Ahmed, Ibrahim M. I. Laila and Marwa S.M. Diab

ABSTRACT: This study designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Selenium and vitamins A, C, E combination administration in the form of film coated tablets (Se-ACE) on induced neurological and reproductive disorders resulted from mercuric chloride (HgCl2) toxicity in rats. Twenty four adult female rats were allocated into four groups each of six rats. Group I: served as control, group II: was administrated Se-ACE (5 mg/kg), group III: intoxicated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg) and group IV: received both HgCl2 + Se-ACE. Rats were given all treatments orally for 14 consecutive days. Intoxication with HgCl2 caused a significant increase in Hg concentration in brain and ovary homogenates, histopathological alterations in rat brain hippocampus and striatum as well as ovary architecture, DNA damage, and marked reduction in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, progesterone (P4), luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) levels. Also, HgCl2 toxicity generated imbalance in antioxidant-oxidant status in neuronal and ovarian tissue through raising the reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and a decrease in activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels compared to rats of control group. Concurrent treatment with HgCl2 and Se-ACE pharmaceutical combination restored these parameters near to normal range when compared to HgCl2 intoxicated animals. Hence, our results suggest that Se-ACE tablets exhibited a protective and ameliorative potential against neurological and reproductive impairments caused by HgCl2 toxicity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 169-182 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.19

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Interactive Effect of Zinc Foliar application and Potassium Fertilizer on Productivity and Grains quality of Wheat

Abido W.A.E. and Rasha S.A. El-Moursy

ABSTRACT: In order to study the response of wheat growth, yield, yield characteristics and grains chemicals analysis to zinc (Zn) foliar treatments under top dressing of potassium (K) fertilizer levels, two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt, during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons. The experiments were laid out in a strip-plot design with three replicates, each experiment comprising of twenty-five different treatments of five zinc foliar application treatments (without as control, spraying with water, 150, 300 and 450 g Zn/fed) were allocated at the vertical-plots. While, the horizontal-plots were devoted to five potassium fertilizer levels (0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 kg K2O/fed) as top dressing. The results showed that zinc foliar application treatments significantly increased growth, yields and its attributes and grain quality of wheat plants and the highest values of all characters under study were recorded with 450 g Zn/fed compared with the other foliar application in both seasons. Potassium fertilization positively enhanced the growth, yield characters and grains quality of wheat. Application of 56 kg K2O/fed produced the highest values of most studied traits and without significant differences with 42 K2O/fed as compared with other potassium levels during both growing seasons. Therefore, the current study detected that foliar application with 450 g Zn/fed), besides potassium soil addition at 42 K2O/fed to improve the productivity and grain qualities of wheat Gemiaza11 cultivar under the same environmental conditions of the agriculture area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 183-195 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.20

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Nickel, Iron and Their Diverse Role in Plants: A Review, Approaches and Future Prospective

Abou Seeda M.A., EL-Sayed A.A., Yassen A.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Sahar M. Zaghloul and Gad Mervat M.

ABSTRACT: In plant sciences, the prodigious significance of micronutrient is unavoidable since plant relies primarily on micronutrient as it has profound influence on array of plant activities. Nickel and iron are considered as the most important essential heavy metals (HMs) for plant nutrition. However, the increased amount of HMs within the plant tissue adversely affected plant physiology, and displays direct and indirect toxic impacts. Such direct effects are the generation of oxidative stress, which further aggravates inhibition of cytoplasmic enzymes and damage to cell structures. Heavy metals (HMs) toxicity has an unavoidable threat to environment and public health due to their increasing contamination and accumulation in atmosphere that ultimately passes to the living beings by the route of food chain. Heavy metals are increasing rapidly in soil and water by weathering of rocks and anthropogenic activities and are now emerging as a major health hazard to humans and plants. Iron and nickel play a crucial role in biochemistry and are essential micronutrients for plants and humans alike, also controversial elements because of debate on its essentiality or non-essentiality in plants. Both elements are important micronutrients because many metallo-enzymes including urease, Ni - Fe hydrogenase, Ni-superoxide dismutase. High concentration of both elements may affects all cellular and metabolic processes and causes retardation of germination, competition with other essential metal ions, osmotic imbalance, alteration of many enzymatic activities, disruption of cell structure and wilting, reduced photosynthetic activity, oxidative stress. Plants also possess some natural and stress-induced strategies to cope up with Nickel excess and /or toxicity. While iron is complexed with chelators and distributed to sink tissues where it is used predominantly in the production of enzyme cofactors or components of electron transport chains. The processes of iron uptake, distribution and metabolism are overseen by tight regulatory mechanisms, at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, to avoid iron concentrations building to toxic excess. This review focuses on researches done on the morpho-biochemical alterations induced by elevated both Ni - Fe elements concentration in plants and as well as the strategies adapted by plants to survive and neutralize the effects of these alterations.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 196-219 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.21

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Effect of Drying Process on the Quality of Table Olives

Badawy H.A.A., Susan M.M. Abd-Elmageed and Rania I.M. Almoselhy

ABSTRACT: The present work aimed to investigate the effect of drying conditions (temperature and time) on the quality of green table olives (Oleo eurapaea L.) Picual cultivar during the drying process in order to obtain the best processing conditions to avoid losses and keep product quality of table olive. Oven temperature varied from 50 to 70°C drying rates were determined and the proximate analysis of dried green olives was evaluated by analysis of moisture, protein, ash, fiber and oil contents. Peroxide value, acidity and fatty acids composition of extracted oil from olive samples were determined. Consumer's acceptance test was applied. A comparison of fresh and dehydrated olive showed that oven drying led to decrease of crude protein. Crude fiber content showed a slight increase during drying and may have undergone some alterations in its structure due to Maillard reactions. Ash content also showed a slight variation but may be considered as practically unchanged. Fatty acid analysis revealed that table olives were especially rich in oleic acid and the fatty acid composition did not show significantly change during drying. Olives can be considered as a product with a satisfactory microbiological quality and nutritional value with regard to bioactive ingredients. It brings about substantial reduction in mass and volume which has important economic benefits through reducing packaging and minimizes the volume of containers with maximum net weight, thereby lowering transportation costs, avoids losses and keeps high quality of longer shelf-life of table olives.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 220-227 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.22

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Importance of Molybdenum and it Diverse Role in Plant Physiology: A Review

Abou Seeda M. A., Yassen A. A., Abou El-Nour E. A. A. and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Nitrogen fertilization is an indispensable part particularly, in modern agricultural practices and rank first among the external inputs to maximize output in agriculture production. Nitrogen fertilizer may contribute substantially to environmental pollution. The continued and unabated use of N fertilizers would accelerate the depletion of stocks of non-renewable energy resources used in fertilizer production. Nitrogen fertilizers must be sought, thus, emphasis should be laid in developing new production methods that are sustainable both ergonomically and economically practices. When plants are grown under molybdenum deficiency, a number of varied phenotypes develop that hinder plant growth. Most of these phenotypes are associated with reduced activity of molybdoenzymes. These enzymes include the primary nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as Nitrate reductase (NR), and the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase found in bacteroids of legume nodules. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can act as a renewable and environmentally sustainable source of N and can complement or replace fertilizer inputs. Molybdenum (Mo) may alleviate drought stress through enhancing antioxidant defense in plants; drought stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth and crop production. Plants have developed various complicated adaptive mechanisms to cope under drought stress by triggering a series of physiological and biochemical. Such mechanisms, antioxidant defense play crucial role in the alleviation of damage caused by drought stress. Phytohormones and signal molecules are involved in the regulation of antioxidant defense, which destroy reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thus, confers drought tolerance to plants. Molybdenum (Mo) extensively reported to facilitate the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance against salinity, and water stress in plants

[ FULL TEXT PDF 228-249 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.23

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Change of Surface Charge of Moringa olifera Seeds Powder and their Effects on Protein Binding Lead (II)

Sherif S. Saleh, Nahed S. A. El-Shayeb, Adel F. Ahmed and Ahmed H. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT The drinking water needs to be treated in order to remove impurities and bacteria to meet the quality guidelines which satisfy 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for drinking water requirement according to World Health Organization. In this study we conducted to use coagulation method to remove the heavy metal (lead ions) from synthetic waste water by using various pH (2, 4, 6 and 8) and concentration of lead (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/l) during coagulation periods (1, 2 and 3 days). At the end of coagulation periods, turbidity, total participant protein and quantity of heavy metals in clarified water was determined against distilled water as control. Moringa oleifera as coagulant reduced the initial amount of lead in clarifying water pH 6 to 0.097 (ug) optimum dosage of 1.5 g L–1 after 3 days. The treatment efficiency of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant matter with using pH 6 after three days gave 93.509 % of protein binding lead. Thus, in the light of this study, an establishment of a cheaper and safer coagulant such as Moringa oleifera seed to treat the problems that rises due to the usage of aluminum sulphate such as health implications for rural areas usage can be established.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 250-262 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.24

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Rapid Authentication of Extra Virgin Olive Oil using UV and FTIR Spectroscopy

H. Hashem, Rania I.M. Almoselhy, M. El-Waseif and A. Magdy

ABSTRACT Spectroscopic examination in the ultraviolet (UV) can provide information on the quality of an oil, its state of preservation and changes brought about by technological processes. The absorption at the wavelengths 232 nm and 270 nm in cyclohexane is due to the presence of conjugated diene and triene systems, respectively, resulting from oxidation processes and/or refining practices. These absorptions are expressed as specific extinctions conventionally indicated by K (also referred to as "extinction coefficient"). In this work, the specific extinctions at 232 nm and 270 nm in cyclohexane are calculated for a concentration of 1% w/v for extra virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower, corn oils in their binary admixtures in different concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100% w/w). Results revealed that the adulteration will be detected easily by UV absorbance at 270 nm because sunflower oil showed a shift out of the permitted range at 15% upward higher concentrations added to extra virgin olive oil. Also, corn oil will be detected if present in 15% upward higher concentrations in blends with extra virgin olive oil. The calculated ΔK allowed the detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oil at the concentration of 15% upward higher concentrations of adulterant sunflower and corn oils; and this is the lowest detectable value in adulterated extra virgin olive oil. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is used as an effective analytical tool in order to determine extra virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower, corn oils in their binary admixtures in different concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100% w/w). A band around 2925 cm-1 along with its intensity (assigned to C–O stretching and symmetric stretching vibration of the aliphatic CH2 group) along with a very strong band along with its intensity located at 1743 cm-1 (assigned to the C=O stretching band of the ester group) were important to detect concentration of 5% adulterants SO and CO in EVOO. The present work successfully achieved its aim included in the applications of UV and FTIR spectroscopy as rapid, cheap, nondestructive, authenticity measuring tools to assess the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with other edible oils such as corn and sunflower oils in detection limit 15% for UV and 5% for FTIR spectroscopy. Library searching in the FTIR region is a well established and powerful way which was used in comparison and matching of measured spectra.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 263-271 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.25

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Screening and Molecular Identification of Cellulase-producing Bacillus spp. from Agricultural Soil: its potential in biological control

Mohamed M. Gharieb, Gaber A. Abo-Zaid, Shimaa I. Bashir and Elsayed E. Hafez

ABSTRACT: Bacillus spp. were isolated from rhizosphere soils on LB agar plate. Forty cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and screened for production of cellulase enzyme on a basal agar medium containing carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5% w/v) as a sole carbon source. Among them, 23 isolates were identified as good producers of cellulase, which were then quantified. The crud enzyme of the selected isolates was harvested, after 24h incubation, and tested for enzyme activity. Isolate B71 had the highest extracellular cellulase activity at 0.05 U/ml. The molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed a close relationship between the isolate B71 and Bacillus subtilis HGUP332. This bacterial isolate showed a high antagonistic activity toward Pythium spinosum where the percentage of inhibition was up to 50% as compared to control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 272-278 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.26

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Production and characterization of antifungal compound from Bacillus sp. GRP against Rhizoctonia solani using bio-nano-fungicide

Heba H. Maghrawy, Ola M. Gomaa, Samir ElGizawy, Refae I. Refae and Hussein Abd El Kareem

ABSTRACT: Rhizoctonia solani is responsible for stem canker which often leads to yield loss or in severe cases, plant death. Previously, Bacillus sp. GRP isolated from rhizosphere of healthy potato plants was found to produce antifungal substances that are active against Rhizoctonia solani. The present study tests the antifungal production, characterization and formulation into bio-nano-fungicide for field application. Among four media tested, the maximum growth and antifungal production was found in tryptone soya broth medium under static condition at 30°C, pH7, inoculum density 1% and 72 h incubation. Antifungal substances were extracted and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) that revealed the presence of two compounds which were assigned as fengycin and surfactin. Crude antifun gal compounds were immobilized on nanoclay particles and its antifungal ability and stability test to inhibit the pathogen compared with the free compound were evaluated. At the same time, bio-nano-fungicide characterization was performed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and FTIR. The immobilized compounds inhibited fungal mycelial growth (92%) at 50 ppm. In addition, immobilized compounds showed good stability at different storage periods, as well as enhanced biocontrol efficiency in soil. All these characteristics suggest the possible use of bio-nano-fungicide as a valuable option for biological control purposes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 279-293 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.27

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