January-March, 2021


The Ability of Some Antagonistic Bacteria on Control of Onion Pink Root Rot Compared to Fungicide Efficiency

Zeinab N. Hussien

ABSTRACT: Biological control considered one of the alternatives to fungicides, which have raised serious concerns of food contamination and environmental pollution, beside it is eco-friendly, safe and may provide longterm protection to the crop and this due to its ability to suppress the activities and populations of the plant pathogens. In line with this trend, thirteen bacterial isolates were used to study their antagonistic effects on onion pink root rot caused by Setophoma (Pyrenochaeta) terrestris. In vitro evaluation only eight isolates caused moderate to strong inhibition to the three tested isolates of Setophoma terrestris. Bacillus subtilis (Bs.2) gave the high significant antagonistic effect against the three tested isolates followed by Bacillus subtilis (Bs.1), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf.5). In greenhouse and field experiments, the most effective isolates in reducing pink root rot disease were Bacillus subtilis (Bs.2) followed by Bacillus subtilis (Bs1) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf.5). Also the highest onion bulb yield in the two seasons (2018/2019 and 2019/2020) were obtained by Bacillus subtilis (Bs2) followed by Bacillus subtilis (Bs.1). The results confirmed the ability of some tested bioagents to be near to the efficacy of commercial fungicide in reducing onion pink root rot disease. In this respect, in greenhouse and field trials Bacillus subtilis (Bs2) effect was the nearest one to fungicide effect in minimizing of pink root rot and also superior to the biocide treatment followed by Bacillus subtilis (Bs1) in the two seasons (2018/2019 and 2019/2020). The presented study confirmed the ability of some tested bioaegents to be alternative to the fungicides in reducing onion pink root rot diseases as well as increasing the onion bulb yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-9 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.1


Entrepreneurship in Farming: Small-Scale Farming and Agricultural Mechanization Hire Service Enterprises in Iraq

Martin Hilmi

ABSTRACT: The main aim of the research was to attempt to better understand agripreneurship and agripreneurs’ characteristics in small-scale farming in Iraq. This involved researching the small-scale farm as an enterprise as well as focusing on a common farm enterprise: agricultural mechanization hire service enterprises. The nature of the research taken was primarily qualitative, based on three literature research and reviews as well as two series of key informant in-depth one-to-one interviews, and took a historical, exploratory and descriptive perspective, while taking an overall abductive research approach.The characteristics of agripreneurship and agripreneurs were identified along with historical and current contextual factors that have influenced and shaped agripreneurship and agripreneurs in Iraq. What emerged mainly was the strong community-based and social stance of agripreneurship and agripreneurs, the role of the public sector within agripreneurship and as an agripreneur, and the highly localized diversity of agripreneurship and agripreneurs and their uniqueness, this not only between the 18 provinces of Iraq but also within the 18 provinces of Iraq. Consequently more research is required on agripreneurship and agripreneurs in Iraq, but in particular focused at the local level of the 18 provinces of Iraq, so as to attempt to better ascertain the diversity and uniqueness of agripreneurship and agripreneurs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-52 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.2


Studies on micropropagation of Aglaonema tipe Dud Anjamani plants

Gehan M.Y. Salama

ABSTRACT: This study was intended to find out a well-defined commercial production protocol for in vitro propagation of Aglaonema tipe Dud Anjamani. In this respect, shoot tips of the plant were effectively surface sterilized with a mixture of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) were used at 0.5 g/l HgCl2 and 2.0 % NaOCl. In establishment stage, Shoot tips were cultured on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l IBA. For multiplication stage, BA and Kin at 3.0 and 3.0 mg/l formed the highest shoot length, number of leaves and number of shoots. For rooting, 3.0 mg/l IBA was more suitable. Plantlets after root development exhibited 100% survival in peat moss and sand at a ratio of 3:1 under greenhouse conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 53-59 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.3


Role of Endophytic Bacteria in Induction of Salt Tolerance of Sorghum

Mona M. El-Shazly

ABSTRACT: Salinity is one of the most dangerous environmental limiting factors of the plant productivity. Induction of salt stress using plant growth promotes endophytes (PGPEs) have the ability to promote a symbiotic relationship with their host to improve salt tolerance. In this study the main goal is to improve sorghum plant salt tolerance using endophytic bacteria. Isolation and screening of salt-tolerant endophytes from Mangroove plants (Aveccinia marina and Rhisophora macronata), creals (Barley and Wheat), were achieved through surface sterilization of roots, ability of isolate to grow at different NaCl concentrations was examined. Biochemical activities of isolates towards nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, ammonia production, enzyme production and stress tolerance were determined. From the total 24 endophytic bacterial species that were isolated from root and stem of Aveccinia, Rhizophora, Barley and Wheat. One isolate was recorded the highest activities in all screening test. This isolate was morphologically identified and confirmed identification using 16sRNA as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, this isolate was valuable biological plant growth promoters that could enhance salt tolerance in Sorghum plants under salt stress. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of selected isolate in inducing tolerance of sorghum under three levels of mineral fertilization NPK (50, 75 and 100%). A field experiment was conducted Ras Sudr Research station. South Sinai Governorates, Desert Research Center (DRC). Obtained results revealed that endophyte application recorded an increase in yield reaching (23.5, 21.5 and 19.4% at three levels of mineral fertilization) over control. Concerning to growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight), inoculation process significantly increased growth parameters compared to uninoculated treatment. The inoculation process have a positive effect on the activity and abundance of microbial community and soil enzymes (dehydrogenase and phosphatase) and in the rhizosphere zone. Resulting in an increase of macronutrient contents (N, P and K), Na+ concentration decreased and K+ content increased, in comparison with the non-inoculated controls. The findings reported that the inoculation of the selected endophytic bacteria isolate was successfully isolated from Rhizophora significantly alleviated the harmful effects of salt stress and promoted plant growth and biomass yield under different mineral fertilization levels.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 60-72 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.4


Study on Genesis and Parent Material Homogeneity of Some Soils West Manfalut, Assuit, Egypt

Aref A. A., El Kady M. M., Faragallah M. A., El-Desoky A. I.

ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is to appraise genesis and parent material uniformity along a toposequence of some soils west Manfalut, Assuit-Egypt for precision of agricultural landuse management. A total of forty soil samples were collected from sixteen soil profiles that represent most of the ground elevations of the study area (35 to 125 m a.s.l). These samples were used for heavy minerals identification. The soils were deep having a texture between sand and sandy clay loam with varied contents of gravel. The highest frequency of Opaques and Ubiquitous was found in the north of the research area (86.9 m a.s.l). Further, Pyroboles and Para-metamorphic minerals were detected in maximum contents in the south portion (59.4 & 111.1 m a.s.l), respectively. A significant positively correlation was found between Augite & Apatite, while a significant negatively one was observed between Tourmaline & Zircon. Maturity index values were dominantly less than 75%, indicating weakly developed soils. Morphological characterization and vertical distribution of Z/T, Z/R, and Z/R+T showed that parent materials of the investigated soils are apparently formed of heterogeneous depositional regimes. Accordingly, these soils have particular landuse restrictions and require moderate to special conservation practices for cultivation and providing permanent protection.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 73-91 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.5


Efficiency of Nitrogen and Potassium Use and Its Relationship to the Addition of NP K Fertigation of Seqae Date Palm

Abd Elhamid N.S. and Hamdy A. Mahdy

ABSTRACT: The experimental was carried out on Seqae date palm (semi- dry cv.) Produced from tissue culture during three successive seasons (2018, 2019, 2020) grown at El- Dakhala Oasis, Al- Wady Al - Jadid. The palms were received different rates of N, P, K fertigation. The annual rates per palm were 500,750 or 1000 g actual N in the form of NH4NH3, P fertigation rates (400&800g P2O5/ palm/ year) as H3PO4 and K- fertigation rates (600&1200 g K2O/ palm/ year). Results could be summarized as follows. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) values (the amount of date palm fruits in Kgs. that could be produced from one Kg of nitrogen) were effected with the NPK fertigation. Treatment 4(500 g N +800 g P2O5+1200 g K2O/ palm/ year) gave the highest values198, 206, 333 kgs. Fruits Seqae date palm/ one kg. of nitrogen during three seasons. Treatment 12 (1000 g N+800 g P2O5+1200 g K2O/ palm/ ear) produced (118,124,132 kg. fruits/ one Kg of nitrogen.) Potassium use efficiency (KUE) values (the amount of date palm fruits in kgs. that could be produced from one Kg. of potassium) were effected with the NPK fertigation. The uppermost N, P, K level gave KUE (98.3, 103.3,110 kg fruit/ one Kg of potassium) during three tested seasons. The application of the large amount of NPK increased the mineral content of leaves of Seqae date palm. Increasing N rates raised leaf N and Fe contents and decreased leaf P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn content but had no significant effect on leaf Mn content. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents increased with increasing rate of P fertigation, but unaffected on leaf Mn, Zn and Fe contents. K- fertigation increased leaf N, K, Fe and Zn and decreased Ca, Mg and Mn contents.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 92-98 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.6


Impact of Inclusion Heat-Treated Jatropha Meal in Diets on Performance of Fattening Lambs

Yasser A. A. El-Nomeary, Wafaa M.A. Ghoneem , Mohamed A. Hanafy, Hashem H. Abd El-Rahman, Adel E.M. Mahmoud and Alaa Y. K. Emam

This study aims to investigate the effect of substitution cottonseed meal (CSM) by heated jatropha meal
(HJM) with 0, 30, 45, and 60% in sheep rations. Growth performance, rumen fluid, blood properties
and economic efficiency of lambs were also evaluated. Twenty four Barki lambs with an average weight
of 32.9kg were randomly assigned to 4 groups (6 animals of each). The first group fed a control ration
containing concentrate feed mixture (CFM) + peanut vines hay. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th groups fed the
control ration with replacing cottonseed meal by heated jatropha meal at 30, 45, and 60%. Results: The
control group recorded the best average daily weight gain, followed by the R2 group (192.77 vs.
191.10g) compared to R3 and R4 groups. Low ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids were
observed in all different HJM groups compared to the control group. Animals were given rations
containing 45, and 60% HJM (R3 and R4) showed low total dry matter intake and average daily weight
gain. The concentration of serum total protein was not significantly affected by the inclusion of HJM
in experimental rations. Feed cost was decreased in R4, R3, and R2 groups, respectively than the control
group. At the same time economic efficiency and relative economic efficiency was higher in R2 (HJM)
as compared with the other groups. Conclusion: It possible to replace the cottonseed meal with 30%
heated jatropha meal in lambs rations without any negative impacts on growth performance, decreased
feed cost improved economic efficiency and feed use parameters for lambs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 99-109 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.7


Effect of salicylic acid, gibberellic acid, and hot water dipping on storability of
grapefruit fruits Citrus paradise Macf.
Shaimaa S. Mahdi1, Nameer N. Fadhil2 and Wisam K. Khalid3

ABSTRACT: The study was conducted in the cold room of the Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul. The ripe grapefruit fruits cv. "Star Ruby "was obtained from 10 years old trees Located in a private orchard in Baghdad governorate on 1st of May 2020. Sound and similar fruits were selected and subjected to precooling, then, they were stored in the cold room at a temperature of 5±1˚C. The fruits were dipped in GA3 at concentrations of 0,100, and 200 mg.l-1 and salicylic acid at concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg.l-1, then they dipped in hot water at 20˚C (control), 40˚C, and 50˚C for 2 minutes. The fruits were extracted and left to dry, then they were packed according to their treatments in polyethylene bags, and the fruits were stored at a temperature of 5±1˚C and 85-90% relative humidity for two storage periods (70 and 100 days). Acidity was significantly higher in the fruits dipped in water at a temperature of 20 and 50˚C. Ascorbic acid content reached the highest concentration in the fruits that were dipped in the water of 40°C. Dipping the fruits with salicylic acid at a concentration of 1000 mg l-1 led to a significant reduction in the percentage of spoiled fruits. Total sugars and the acidity percentage were significantly higher in the fruits stored for 70, while spoiled fruits increased significantly during the longer storage period. The interaction coefficients between gibberellic acid and salicylic acid, hot water dipping, and storage periods were more effective than single treatments, where the total sugars was higher in the fruits which dipped in salicylic acid at the concentration 500 mg.l-1 and hot water at a temperature of 40˚C and stored for 70 days. Whereas, the highest percentage of acidity and the highest percentage of total sugars/ acidity were for control treatment that was dipped in hot water at a temperature of 50 or 40˚C and stored for 70 days. The highest firmness was for the fruits that dipped in salicylic acid at concentration 500 mg.l-1, and dipped in hot water at 40°C and stored for 100 days. As for ascorbic acid, the highest content in the fruit was obtained with the salicylic acid at a concentration of 500 mg.l-1 with water at a temperature of 20˚C and stored for 100 days. The best treatment to obtain fruits free from spoilage after storage for 100 days was obtained with fruits that were treated with dipping in salicylic acid at a concentration of 500 mg.l-1 and hot water at 50°C.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 110-116 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.8


Boron, Structure, Functions and Its Interaction with Nutrients in Plant Physiology. A Review

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Yassen, A.A., and Hammad S.A.

ABSTRACT: Boron is an essential trace element required for the physiological functioning of higher plants, considering as a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the metabolism and growth of plants. Boron is in many ways unique among plant nutrients; however, it is especially distinguished by the substantial differences among species in terms of mobility, the narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and differential inter- and interspecies response to an inadequate supply. Both boron deficiency and toxicity may have detrimental effects on yield of various agricultural plants. Deficiency of boron in soil may reduce the yield productivity particularly for rice crops through increased panicle sterility; fewer productive tillers, shriveled grains, fewer chloroplasts, and lower net assimilate rates along with impaired grain cooking quality. Fertilization of boron may solve and improve boron deficiency. Such disorder pronounced more in the reproductive phase of plant life, particularly in species in which the element is phloem-immobile. Boron is involved in the structural and functional integrity of the cell wall and membranes, ion fluxes H+ , K+ , PO4 -3, Rb+ and Ca+2 across the membranes, cell division and elongation, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, sugar transport, cytoskeletal proteins, and plasmalemma-bound enzymes, nucleic acid, indole acetic acid, polyamines, ascorbic acid, and phenol metabolism and transport. . Boron has been associated with one or more of the following processes: calcium utilization, cell division, flowering /reproductive phase, water relations, disease resistance, and nitrogen (N) metabolism Review examined Boron functions in plants, deficiency and toxicity symptoms. Mechanism and transportation of Boron uptake particularly under low boron concentration. Several factors may occur for boron deficiency including soil characteristics such as, soil acidity and / or alkalinity, low organic matter content, and water deficit. The interaction between boron and other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium; and the availability and application of boron fertilizers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 117-179 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.9


Influence of hot water dipping, modified atmosphere packaging, and storage periods on pomegranate fruits storability

Nour D.S. Al-Saadoon and Nameer N. Fadhil

ABSTRACT: The study was conducted in the cold room of Horticulture and landscape Dept., College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul on pomegranate fruits cv. “Armishty”. The fruits were divided into four groups, each group was dipped in hot water (20, 40, 50, and 60˚C) for 5 min. Each of the four groups was divided into two secondary groups: The first, the fruits were packaged in high density (27 microns) polyethylene bags and the second was unpackaged fruits. All treatment fruits were stored for three storage periods (6, 12, and 18 weeks) at 5+1˚C, and 80-90% R.H. to study the effect of the treatments on the storability of the pomegranate fruits. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used in the factorial experiment with 3 replicates and 6 fruits for each experimental unit. The results were compared by using Duncan test at 5% probability. Results showed that Polyethylene ackaging resulted in a significant increase in ascorbic acid and a significant reduction in respiration rate, weight loss, and total soluble acids. Also, packaging increased significantly gray mold incidence. Six weeks storage period was superior significantly in total soluble solids, weight loss, ascorbic acid, and was the least significant in gray rot incidence and weight loss followed by 12 and 18 weeks periods. Prolonging storage periods increased respiration rate, weight loss, and gray rot incidence. In respect of the interaction between the three factors, it obvious that the interaction between the packaged fruits and 40 and 50˚C and the shortest storage period (6 weeks) treatment was the best in weight loss and ascorbic acid. Peroxidase enzyme activity was higher in fruits dipped in water at 60˚C. Interaction between the packaged fruits which dipped in 60˚C hot water gave the highest activity for peroxidase enzyme.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 180-187 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.10


Role of bio-stimulants in crop production under salinity stress. A review

Sona S. El-Nwehy, A.I. Rezk and A.B. El-Nasharty

ABSTRACT: Bio-stimulants are defined as products that are capable of enhancing plant growth, productivity and mitigating the adverse effects of abiotic stresses such as salinity stress, derived from various organic or inorganic substances and/or micro-organisms. Mineral elements, vitamins, amino acids, poly and oligosaccharides, and plant hormones are the most well-known components. Bio-stimulants play an important role in reducing the use of fertilizers, increasing plant growth, resisting water hortage and various environmental stresses, and these materials are effective when used in low concentrations as they improve biological processes inside the plant and increase the productivity and quality of different crops. In addition, it increases the efficiency of using nutrients under conditions of different environmental stresses, regardless of the content of these nutrients. Hence, bio-stimulants were proposed as one of the sources of agricultural additives to increase the resistance of plants to different types of stresses, especially salt stress, because of its negative effects on the growth of the products, which are ultimately reflected in the crop and its quality. Therefore, these products contain biologically active compounds that have beneficial effects on plants and improve their ability to face harmful environmental conditions, as these compounds play an important role in the various biological processes within the plant. Numerous studies have proven the role of different bio-stimulants in improving the growth of plants exposed to salt stress, as different materials have been used from these bio-stimulators, such as: algae extracts, humic acids, yeast extracts, amino acids, microorganisms and growth regulators, in addition to nano-materials, as well as some residues of different manufacturing processes. It was found that spraying algae extract on sunflower plants under saline conditions led to an increase in the seed yield by 23% and an increase in the oil yield by 37%. Also, spraying with yeast extract on tomato plants increased yield by 12%. Whereas, spraying with amino acids increased the grape yield by 63%. From the above, adding these bio-stimulants enable the plant to face the negative effects unfavorable to growth resulting from increased salinity, which retard growth and reduce productivity and quality. Therefore, the use of growth stimulants immediately before, during or after exposure to this condition enables the plant to withstand salt stress and resist its effects.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 188-206 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.11


Effect of Potassium Levels as Soil Application and Foliar Spray with Silicon and Boron on Yield and Root Quality of Sugar Beet under Clay Soil

Samia M.S. El-Kalawy

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agric. Res. Station,El Gharbeya Governorate, Egypt during the two successive winter seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018. This investigation was aimed to study the effect of potassium levels (0, 12, 18 and 24 kg K2O/fad.) and foliar spray with silicon in the form of potassium silicate (200 ppm Si) and boron in the form of boric acid at 250 ppm B four times at 60, 80, 100 and 120 days after sowing on growth, plant chemical constituents yield and root quality of sugar beet cv Oskar poly grown in clay soil conditions. The obtained results indicated that, the interaction between fertilizing sugar beet with potassium at 24 kg K2O/fad. In the form potassium sulphate and spraying with silicon at 200 ppm gave the highest values of plant height, dry weight of shoots, roots and total dry weight/ plant, highest concentrations of chlorophyll a, b and total ( a+b) in leaf tissues, highest contents of potassium in shoots and roots and silicon in shoots, root diameter, average root weight, yield of top and total yield of roots /fad. as well as higher available potassium, silicon and boron in the soil after harvesting plants. Moreover, the interaction between potassium at 24 kg K2O/fad. and spraying with boron at 250 ppm gave the highest concentration of boron in the shoots, sucrose contents in juice of roots, juice purity, total yield of sugars /fed. No significant differences between boron and Si spraying on yield of sugars/fed. in both seasons. Whereas, the interaction between potassium at 12 kgK2O/fad. and spraying with silicon at 200 ppm significantly increased  amino nitrogen in roots, while unfertilized and unsprayed plants recorded the highest contents on sodium in roots in both seasons. Impurity (%) and sugar lost to molasses (%) had no significant affected by the interaction between potassium levels and foliar spray treatments in both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 207-226 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.12


Plant genetic barcoding of some Legume tree species grown in Egypt

Houssam El-Din M.F. El-Wakil, Aly Z. Abdelsalam, Hesham M. Aly, Asma Aboshady, Samar M.A. Rabie, Mohamed E. Hasan and Nader R. Abdelsalam

ABSTRACT: DNA barcoding as tools for rapid species documentation based on DNA sequences. During the current study fifteen species were collected, belonged to family fabacea from Antoniades Garden Alexandria between July 2019 and January 2020 RbcL and matK of the plastid genomes were used to study the sequence of the nucleotides bases of these genetic materials, alignment the current genetic sequence which obtained from NCBI and CBOL and matched the observed sequence with other in the GeneBank, calculating the differential between the different species of trees using precise genetic coding instead of the phenotypic distinction and finding the evolutionary relationship between the types of these trees. The results showed that the quality of the extracted DNA which detected by using 1% agarose gel electrophoresis there were no fragmentation was observed in extracted DNA. Also, the extracted DNA was directly used in PCR amplification for the two genes; RbcL (600 bp) and MatK gene (900 bp). The average of nucleotides composition for all the plant species are A=27.23%, G=20.86%, G=22.43% and T=29.45%, while the G+C= 40.30% and A+T= 56.69% in a total number 585.26 nucleotides. Also, the data of MatK gene, showed highly similiters percentage ranged from 95.63 to 99.77 for all the studied species with others in gene bank. For instance, Cassia fistula was identical with the same species on GenBank (99.77%), while Delonix regia showed high similarities with Delonix regia, Delonix boiviniana voucher Bruneau (99.54). The average of nucleotides composition for all the plant species are A=37.30%, G=15.11%, C=16.84% and T=30.75%, while the G+C= 31.95% and A+T= 68.05% in a total number 833 nucleotides. Regarding to RbcL gene, there are high significant homogeneity between the tested species as follow: Tipuana tipu with Schotia brachypetala, Parkinsonia aculeata, Leucaena leucocephala, Delonix regia and Dalbergia sissoo with P-values were 0.010, 0.014, 0.030, 0.000 and 0.024. While other significant was observed between Schotia brachypetala Parkinsonia aculeata with Erythrina humeana by 0.004; Erythrina_humeana with Delonix regia and Cassia javanica by 0.004 and 0.030 and finally, Delonix regia with Cassia fistula by P-values 0.032. On the other hand, for MatK, there are significant homogeneity between Erythrina_humeana and the fowling species were Sophora secundiflora, Tipuana tipu, Senna surattensis, Schotia brachypetala, Parkinsonia aculeata, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia saligna (0.000, 0.000, 0.004, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.000). while Tipuana tipu with Enterolobium_contortisiliquum by (0.036). Also, Erythrina_humeana showed significant homogeneity with the species Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Dichrostachys cinerea, Delonix regia, Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia javanica, Albizia lebbek and Cassia fistula.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 227-237 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.1.13