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January-March, 2020


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Bradyrhizobium and humic substances fertigation improved fertility and productivity of drip-irrigated sandy soil: Field observations on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Abido, W. A. E., Omar, M. M.

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out during 2016 and 2017 summer seasons in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replicates under the ecological conditions of Noubaria District, Beheira Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the applicability potential of Bradyrhizobium and humic substances fertigation for improving soil fertility and productivity of peanut grown on a dripirrigated sandy soil compared to compost and mineral fertilizers applications. Physicochemical analysis revealed the high nutrients content of humic substances as well as their nano-sized diameter and abundance of active functional groups. Organic inputs (compost in particular) improved water retention and the lateral water movement in the rhizosphere compared to the prevalence of gravitydominated vertical movement in the mineral fertigation treatment. Compost application recorded the highest soil organic matter content, which decreased soil pH value. However, Bradyrhizobium and humic substances fertigation exhibited the highest concentrations of available nutrients (N, P and K) and nodulation parameters (nodules number and their dry weight) compared to compost and mineral fertilizers. Although mineral fertigation induced the highest vegetative growth characters, Bradyrhizobium and humic substances fertigation elicited the highest quantitative and qualitative yield indices. The current study, provides insights into the potential fertigation of N-fixing bacteria alongside with humic substances for maximizing water and nutrient supply potentials of drip-irrigated sandy soils.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-17 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.1

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Morphological and anatomical studies on some species of Polygonaceae in Egypt

Fatema S. Mohamed, Safwat A. Azer

ABSTRACT: The taxonomic relationships among eight species of Polygonaceae; Persicaria senegalensis (Meisn.) Soják., Rumex dentatus L., Rumex vesicarius L., Calligonum polygonoides L., Antigonon guatimalense Meisn., Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Ruprechtia salicifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) C.A. Mey. have been concentrated on the basis of information derived from macro- and micro-morphological characters. These diagnostic characters appeared to be significant in differentiation among the studied species. The present work recorded important features in the blade outline, ochreae shape, perianth structure and fruit appendages. The stem outline ranged from terete, ovoid with wavy margin and pentagonal. Pericycle showed two types; parenchymatous and fibrous. Vascular structure of stem appeared either a continuous ring or isolated bundles. The outline of the petiole demonstrates that the studied species can be distinguished into four patterns (semi-terete with wavy margin, half circle with wavy margin, half circle with two projections and oval). Also the stomata revealed three main types; Anomocytic, anisocytic and paracytic. This work showed that the studied species recorded five types of non-glandular trichomes and three types of glandular trichomes. A dichotomous indented key to the species is constructed. The data recorded from the morphological and anatomical characters are used in numerical analysis. This analysis showed that species were grouped into two major clusters, the first one (I) consisted of one species; Calligonum polygonoides while the second cluster (II) included the remainders.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-33 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.2

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An analytical study of wheat storage allocation in Egypt between current situation and desired outcomes

Asmaa Mohamed El-Tokhy Bahloul and Mohamed Osman Abdel Fatah

ABSTRACT The strategic stock of domestic and imported wheat economically and in terms of security are considered as the most important factors that Egyptian food security underpin on it, The strategic stock of wheat in Egypt is estimated to be sufficient for consumption of wheat in Egypt within the next three months, with the aim of avoiding global fluctuations in prices and quantities, which required that the state directs all its efforts to develop storage methods to preserve the wheat crop in quantitative and descriptive terms. The research problem was represented in the low level of technology and storage equipment leading to an increase in the percentage of agricultural losses, especially in the storage stage, in addition to the shortage in developing and providing storage capacities in proportion to the quantities required to be stored to meet the increasing consumer demands. Where the research relied on the use of the transportation model in wheat storage in the governorates of Egypt now and in the future. By studying the regression relationship with the double logarithmic form between the quantity of wheat supply as an independent variable (X) and the amount of agricultural losses as a dependent variable (Y) it was found that there is a direct relationship between the quantity of supply and the amount of losses, where the value of the correlation coefficient between them was 0.97 between the two variables, where it was found that an increase in the quantity of wheat supplied by 1% leads to an increase in wheat loss by around 1.8%. The research also made many attempts that amounted about (35) attempts to reach the best transportation pattern for wheat in Egypt at the minimum transportation costs, where the results showed that the most important storage capacities proposed to be established in those governorates and referred to as dummy variables distributed over the governorates under study (except Cairo and Qalyobia) . The total transportation cost of wheat that distributed over the storage capacities in the various governorates amounted to 150.96 million pounds for the year 2018. While the total estimated cost of transporting 15.5 million tons and distributing it to the storage capacities proposed to be established is minimized to around 149.37 million pounds, as it is less than the actual model about 1.59 million pounds. The total estimated cost of transporting 18.5 million tons and distributing it over the storage capacities proposed to be established is minimized to around 147.77 million pounds, to be less than the actual model by about 3.19 million pounds.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 34-45 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.3

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Effect of bunch covering on yield and fruit quality of "Barhee" date palm cultivar

Harhash M.M., W.F.A. Mosa, Safaa M. El-Nawam and Hassan R. H. Gattas

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted during two successive seasons 2018 and 2019 on twelve years old date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Barhee. The trees of were grown on sandy soil conditions under dripp irrigation system in a private orchard located at Wadi El-Natroun region, El-Behera governorate, Egypt. Eight bunches on each palm were selected uniformly and nearly in size and were subjected to five bunch covering treatments: control" without covering", white paper, kraft paper, white cloth and brown cloth at the beginning of fruit color break stages: end of kimri and beginning of bisir stages. The applied treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates (three trees) for each treatment. The obtained results showed that bunch weight in kg and yield in kg per palm were greatly increased by covering bunches with white paper and white and brown cloth as compared to control in both seasons. Moreover, they were also significantly increased by using kraft paper in the second season over control. Fruit weight was increased remarkably by using white or kraft paper and white or brown cloth in covering bunches of “Barhee” date palm over control in both experimental seasons. TSS percentage was greatly increased in the fruits which were produced from bunch covering with white or kraft paper and white or brown cloth over control. Moreover, white or brown cloth were superior in this term as compared to white or kraft paper in the two seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 46-51 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.4

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Economics of Fish production and Marketing in Egypt

Yahya M. M. Khalil, Salah S. Abd El-Ghani, Tamer G. I. Mansour

ABSTRACT: The total quantity of fish produced in Egypt is estimated at 1413 thousand tons. The main sources are natural sources such as sea, river Nile and lakes, which produce about 455 thousand tons, and industrial sources such as fish farms, which produce about 957.96 thousand tons, representing 32.2% and 67.8%, And the amount consumed about 1733 thousand tons and estimated the fish gap is about 290 thousand tons, which are imported from abroad worth about 4131 million pounds for the average period (2010-2018). Egypt has a problem of low fish production despite the presence of large water bodies in addition to the possibility of increasing industrial sources such as fish farms and fish cages. Fish marketing also faces the greed of intermediaries, with the difficulty of funding for fishermen and weak marketing services. So come the search goal to identification of the main features of the production of (Tilapia, Mullet, Bayad, Catfish) and how to market fish through the study of producer prices, wholesaler and retailer during the period (1990-1999), (2000-2009), (2010-2018) and the relative distribution of the consumer pound, Monthly seasonal retail prices of varieties during the two periods (2007-2012), (2013-2018). We conclude from the seasonal study that the fish (Bayad fish and catfish) are good substitutes for mullet, and tilapia and mullet are good substitutes for catfish, and Bayad fish is not a good alternative to tilapia, There is a temporal effect of time on the prices of tilapia, mullet, the positive correlation also shows the months of February, March, June, July and September, which confirms the increased demand for fish in these months, and that the permanent deficit in all sources of protein causes the difficulty of the possibility of substantial decreases in prices during the months of the year. The research recommends attention to the natural resources of fish such as sea, lakes and rivers to increase Egyptian fish production, in addition to increasing fish farms and fish cages, the use of modern technologies in production, the study of problems faced by producers in fish marketing, and the good study of the monthly seasonality of fish production, consumption and prices to bridge the fish gap.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 52-60 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.5

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Impact of Silica Gel application under Different Irrigation Levels on Water Retention Characteristics and some Physical Properties of Clay Soil

F. N. Mahrous and S. H. AbdElghany

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted during two successive seasons (2017 and 2018) at Agricultural Research Center Station (ARC), Giza, Egypt. Clover was cultivated as an indicator crop to evaluate the residual effect of different rates of silica gel (hydrogel) as a soil inorganic amendment on rice crop yield and clover along with plant water relationships and soil physical properties. Four irrigation treatments, i.e. 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the applied water at recommended rate (RDWI) as well as four rates of soil amendment as silica gel (Hg) (45, 75, 105 and 130) kg .fd-1 were added before cultivation. Mixing the soil by different rates of silica gel improved water soil retention parameter and their hydraulic conductivity (Ks cm/hr) and bulk density (BD g/cm3) The highest values were existed under the highest rate of silica gel 130 kg .fd-1 at 80% RDWI, meanwhile the treatments of silica gel under 60% RDWI recorded the lowest values for soil water retention at the same level of (Hg). The residual effect of silica gel was non valuable and the addition of silica gel will be recommended every season to get the valuable improvement in soil water retention because of degradation of silica gel during the second season. The values of water holding capacity (WHC%), field capacity (FC%), wilting point (WP%) and available water (AW%) were improved as a result of silica gel addition to the soil compared to control during the first season. The corresponding relative increases were 35.13%, 49.50%, 33.93% and 33.31% for (WHC%), (FC%), (WP%) and (AW%) respectively. Whereas the relative decreases for hydraulic conductivity (Ks cm/hr) and bulk density (BD gm/cm3) were 20.88% and 11.81% respectively. The maximum significant value was at 80% RDWI and 130 kg .fd-1 Hg in the first season. These results indicated that the addition of silica gel should be added frequently every season to get sensing improvement for soil water parameters. The results of yield and crop water productivity (CWP) indicated that the best results for rice soil were existed at applied irrigation 80% of RDWI and 130 kg .fd-1 of Hg for the first season, and no longer effect at the second season during clover cultivation. Finally, it is concluded that, using 130kg/fed of silica gel as soil amendment are usable to save 20% of applied irrigation water for rice crop without reduction in yield. Also the additions of silica gel were recommended at every season due to the degradation of silica gel during the hydration cycle in between seasons which led to decrease the holding water ability of
treated soils.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 61-74 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.6

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Reducing sap-sucking pests infesting Eggplant using biological control agent and colored plastic soil mulches under green house

Inas M. Y. Mostafa, Mona I. Ammar, Hayam M. Saad and S.M. Abolmaaty

ABSTRACT: Field trial was conducted during two successive seasons on 2017- 2018 and 2018 - 2019 at greenhouse experimental area, Dokki, Giza Governorate. This study aims to evaluating the efficiency of different colored mulches and biological control Chrysoperla carnea) (Stephens), agents well as the effect of some environmental factors on the reduction of population density of the main sapsucking pests infesting eggplant (Solanum melanogena L.) and yield. The trials were used two treatments; White cover + C. carnea agent, Black cover + C. carnea agent, only colored mulches and without colored mulches or biological agent The results revealed that there are significant differences between using colored mulches with BC on population densities of some pests the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) and the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch). Data showed that the relationship between different treatments of management on population density of B. tabaci and T. urticae with decrease of crop yield for eggplant were highly significant effect of different treatments. These results revealed significant negative effects of maximum temperature and minimum temperature on the seasonal fluctuations of B. tabaci and T. urticae throughout in both season. While in the mean percentages of relative humidity found insignificant positive effects. Recommendation: the paper recommendation by cover soil surface with black or white mulch and use BC to reduce population of whitefly and red mite and increase yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 75-80 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.7

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Physicochemical properties of hydrolyzed collagen produced from chicken feet

Mahmoud F.S.A. Kodous

ABSTRACT: Chicken feet can be used as an substitution source for production hydrolyzed collagen as new desirable healthy food product, this study aims to use the enzymatic hydrolysis method for chicken feet (considered as byproduct) to produce hydrolyzed collagen with orange flavor to be food supplement for anti-aging, anti- osteoporotic and anti arthritis, anti-inflammatory, anti tumor. The results indicated that the hydrolyzed collagen that produced in this study was high in all enzymatic treatments(enzyme concentrate 0.03,0.04 and 0.05%) of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline content, as known that proline and hydroxyproline percent were very important for producing glucosamine in the human body in the presence of ascorbic acid. The results showed that adding orange essence, as well as ascorbic acid during producing of hydrolyzed collagen increased the nutritional value especially in vitamin C from 0 mg/100g of hydrolyzed collagen without any additives (G1) to 500 mg/100g in hydrolyzed collagen with orange essence, as well as ascorbic acid (G2). While protein content decreased from 91.38% to 90.58%. For sensory evaluation it was found that color, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptability for hydrolyzed collagen with orange essence, as well as ascorbic acid (G2) was higher than hydrolyzed collagen (G1).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 81-89 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.8

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Economic returns of incorporation agro-industrial by-products in farm animals feeding.
1. Impact of replacement yellow corn with potato by-products in rabbit diets

Hamed A.A. Omer, Soha S. Abdel-Magid, Nayera Y. Solieman and Rania M. Barghash

ABSTRACT: One major limiting factor to livestock production is the high cost of conventional feedstuffs such as (soybean meal, maize, clover hay…etc). However, many feedstuffs, especially agro-industrial byproducts which are usually of no feeding value to humans can alternatively be fed at cheaper cost to animals. This work was divided into two sections (first section illustrated the nutritional evaluation of potato by-products (PBP) as a source of agro-industrials by-products that incorporated in ration formulation of rabbits. On the other hand, the second section illustrated the evaluation of economic returns for using this unconventional source of feed stuffs in rabbit rations formulation. The results obtained mentioned that potato by-products (PBP) can be used as a good unconventional source of energy and protein, in addition to, it can be considered as alternative feedstuffs for yellow corn in rabbit diets without any adverse effect on their performance. Also, it can be considered that potato byproducts a cheap source of un conventional feedstuffs can be used economically in rabbit diets formulations. Under the conditions available during carried out of this study and from the result obtained it could be mentioned that replacing yellow corn by potato by-products, realized an improving in their performance and depressed the feeding cost.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 90-99 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.9

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Economic returns of incorporation agro-industrial by-products in farm animals feeding
2. Impact of replacement clover hay with Strawberry by-products in rabbit diets

Hamed A.A. Omer, Soha S. Abdel-Magid, Nayera Y. Solieman and Rania M. Barghash

ABSTRACT: Many feedstuffs, especially agro-industrial by-products which are usually of no feeding value to humans can alternatively be fed at cheaper cost to animals, because one major limiting factor to livestock production is the high cost of conventional feedstuffs such as (soybean meal, maize, clover hay…etc). This work was divided into two sections (first section illustrated the nutritional evaluation of strawberry by-products (SBP) as a source of agro-industrials by-products that incorporated in ration formulation of rabbits. On the other hand, the second section illustrated the evaluation of economic returns for using this unconventional source of feedstuffs in rabbit rations formulation. The present results showed that strawberry by-products (SBP) can be used as a good unconventional source of protein and energy, in addition to, it can be considered as alternative feedstuffs for clover hay in rabbit diets without any adverse effect on their performance. Also, when inclusion SBP in rabbit diets, the feeding cost occurred decreasing in their total cost of production, consequently it can be considered that strawberry by-products a cheap source of unconventional feedstuffs can be used economically in rabbit diets formulations. From the result obtained and under the same conditions available during carried out of this work it could be revealed that replacing clover hay by strawberry by-products, caused an improving in their performance and reduced the feeding cost.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 100-109 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.10

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Economic returns of incorporation agro-industrial by-products in farm animals feeding.
3. Impact of incorporation Sugar beet pulp in sheep rations

Hamed A.A. Omer, Soha S. Abdel-Magid, Nayera Y. Solieman and Rania M. Barghash

ABSTRACT: This work was divided into two sections (first section illustrated the nutritional evaluation of sugar beet pulp (SBP) as a source of agro-industrials by-products that incorporated in ration formulation of sheep. On the other hand, the second section illustrated the evaluation of economic returns for using this unconventional source of feedstuffs in sheep rations formulation. The present results obtained showed that SBP can be used as a good unconventional source of protein and energy, in addition to, it can be considered as alternative feedstuffs for most ingredients that used in sheep rations but was noticed significantly (P<0.05) decreasing on their performance. Also, when inclusion SBP in sheep rations, the feeding cost occurred decreasing in their total cost of production, consequently it can be considered that sugar beet pulp a cheap source of unconventional feedstuffs can be used economically in sheep ration formulations. From the result obtained and under the same conditions available during carried out of this work it could be revealed that incorporation sugar beet pulp, reduced the feeding cost of sheep.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 110-120 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.11

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Effect of Humic Acid Application on Qualitative Parameters of Sugar Beet Cv. Shirin

Amir Rahimi, Mustafa Kiralan and Fatemeh Ahmadi

ABSTRACT: The present experiment aimed to investigate the influence of humic acid application on qualitative traits of sugar beet cv. ‘Shirin’ basis of a randomized complete block design with four replications during 2007-2008. The plants were treated with different humic acid treatments (control, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 kg ha-1). The sugar and non-sugar components such as potassium, sodium, amino-nitrogen and some qualitative parameters for sugar processing such as alkalinity of juice , root yield, sugar percent, recoverable sugar, and sugar content in molasses were determined according to the standard methods. According to the results, humic acid application enhanced sugar quality of sugar beet. The lowest value for K, Na and amino-nitrogen was observed in H300 treatment (300 kg ha-1) with 3.85 meq 100 g-1 pulp, 1.22 meq 100 g-1 pulp and 1.21 meq 100 g-1 pulp, respectively. The highest recoverable sugar content (15.64%) was obtained from 500 kg ha-1 application. Also, the highest sugar yield (18.41%) and the lowest sugar content in molasses (2.14%) were observed in the treatments of 400 kg ha-1 and 300 kg ha-1humic acid, respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 121-129 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.12

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Role of Boron and Calcium on growth, flowering and yield of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) var. Liberation D'Orleans

Ahmed A. A. M. Ahmed, Zuhair A. Dawood, Wisam K. Khalid

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in the field of Horticulture Dept. at Agricultural & Forestry College, Mosul University during the season of 2017/2018. The aim was to study the effect of Calcium concentration (0.25 and 0.5% as calcium chloride) and Boron concentration (30 and 60 mg.L-1 as Boric acid) and control (Untreated plants), on the growth, flowering and yield of strawberry plant var. Liberation D'Orleans. The design of the experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Results indicated that the plants which sprayed with 0.25% Ca gave the highest and significantly different results of average of No. leaves/plants (43.67), leaf area (4268.1 cm2), No. of runner/ plant (21.58) in comparison with control, except the highest average of vegetative dry weight (187.71) gm. While 0.5% Ca spraying application gave the best average, which differs significantly in No. of flowers/plant (20.00), Total yield/plant (112.34gm) and Total yield/Exp. unit (449.37gm). compared to control. The best effect of Boron was shown in the dry weight of root that gave 174.71 g and it differs significantly in comparison with Ca conc. and control treatment (non-spraying).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 130-133 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.13

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Changes in Post-harvest Quality of Menthe and Sage fresh Cut Herbs Treated with Citric acid, Salicylic Acid and Chitosan under Cold storage

A. Nazmy Abdel-Hamid

ABSTRACT: The effect of citric acid, salicylic acid and chitosan as pre-storage treatments on store ability of fresh cut herbs of Menthe (Menha piperita L.) and Sage (Saliva officinalis L.) during 2018 and 2019 seasons were studied. The fresh cut herbs of both species were stored for 15 days at 5°C followed by 5 days at 20°C as a marketing conditions simulation. Physical properties, chemical constituents and volatile oil contents were evaluated. Weight loss %, discarded herb % and external appearance in both herbs greatly affected with different treatments and cold storage durations and the great effect in this respect was obtained with salicylic acid at 1.0 mM and chitosan at 1000 ppm. However, a great values in total chlorophyll, Lascorbic acid, total phenol and total flavones due to the applied treatments compared with control in menthe and sage herbs were recorded during cold storage at 5°C for 15 days followed by marketing durations at 20°C for 5 days. On contrary , an evident decrease in total acidity was observed with advanced in cold storage periods and due to the applied treatments compared with control in both herbs, during cold storage at 5°C for 15 days and during marketing durations at 20°C for 5 days. Additionally, an evident decrease in total acidity was observed with advanced in cold storage periods and due to the applied treatments compared with control. In other side of view, electrolyte leakage and respiration rate values were controlled with applied treatments than untreated herbs either at cold storage at 5°C for 15 days or during marketing period at 20°C for 5 days. Volatile oil of both menthe and sage fresh cut herbs greatly affect with cold storage duration at 5°C for 15 days and followed by 5 days at 20°C. However, volatile oil of menthe fresh cut herb ranged from 0.22-0.27% and from 0.31-0.36% in sage herbs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 134-148 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.14

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The Essentiality of Selenium for Plants, and Their Role in Plant Physiology. A review

Abou Seeda M.A., Yassen A.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Gad, Mervat M. and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is a trace element indispensable for humans, animals and some microorganisms. For plants, its essentiality has not yet been established, despite its responsibility for a number of beneficial effects in several plant species. Plants take up Se mainly as selenate and selenite, using root high-affinity membrane transporters that normally mediate the influx of sulfate and phosphate ions, respectively. Se can access the sulfur (S) assimilation pathway and incorporated into the Se-amino acids Se-cysteine (SeCys) and Se-methionine (SeMet). Studies with transgenics showed that some enzymes working in this pathway are rate limiting for Se uptake, tolerance and accumulation in plants. Selenium at high concentration is toxic for plants, both due to oxidative stress and because Se-amino acids are nonspecifically incorporated into proteins, which lose their folding and function as a result. Therefore, plants have evolved different strategies to cope with Se toxicity. They usually involve the conversion of Se-amino acids into less harmful volatile compounds. Specifically, plants that do not accumulate Se at high levels produce dimethylselenide (DMSe) using SeMet as a precursor, while Sehyperaccumulators, i.e. plants able to tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of Se in their tissues, and generate dimethyldiselenide (DMDSe) starting from the amino acid SeCys. Selenium
hyperaccumulators have additional mechanisms to prevent SeCys disincorporation into protein, like methylation of SeCys to methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) via SeCys methyltransferase (SMT), and breaking down of SeCys into elemental Se and alanine. . Hyperaccumulators also have elevated selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) levels, whose product is the main form accumulated, methylselenocysteine. This form is sequestered in hyperaccumulators mainly in epidermis and reproductive tissues. Transcriptomic and biochemical analyses indicate constitutively elevated levels of the hormones jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene, which may explain the constitutive up regulation of sulfate uptake and assimilation. Hyperaccumulators also have higher transcript levels of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance and defense against biotic stress, which may contribute to Se tolerance and are upregulated by the same stress/defense hormones.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 149-170 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.1.15

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