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Oct-Dec, 2020

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Alternative way for using wastewater treatments in agro management techniques using micro irrigation systems: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Hammad S.A. and Yassen A.A.

ABSTRACT: In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, water has become a limiting factor, particularly for agricultural and industrial development. Water resources planners are continually looking for additional sources of water to supplement the limited resources available to their region. Several countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region, for Example, where precipitation is in the range of 100-200 mm a-1. In such situations, source substitution appears to be the most suitable alternative to satisfy less restrictive uses, thus allowing high quality waters to be used for domestic supply. Consider low quality waters such as wastewater, drainage waters and brackish waters should, whenever possible, as alternative sources for less restrictive uses. Agricultural use of water resources is of great importance due to the high volumes that are necessary. Irrigated agriculture will play a dominant role in the sustainability of crop production in years to come. The use of appropriate technologies for the development of alternative sources of water is, probably, the single most adequate approach for solving the global problem of water shortage, together with improvements in the efficiency of water use and with adequate control to reduce water consumption. The use of wastewater constitutes an important element of a water resources policy and strategy. Many nations, particularly those in the arid and semi-arid regions such as the Middle Eastern countries, have adopted in principle the use of treated wastewater as an important concept in their overall water resources policy and planning. However, accompanied with an extensive implementation of sewage irrigation, some problems with sewage irrigation became gradually obvious in agriculture, especially those related with pollution and destruction of farmlands. In this paper, the effects of sewage irrigation on soil physical (soil bulk density, soil resistance to penetration and field capacity), chemical (pH, soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, heavy metal and organic pollutants) and biological characteristics (soil microorganisms and enzyme activities) were systematically reviewed. To ensure long-term sustainability, sufficient attention must be given to the social, institutional and organizational aspects of effluent use in agriculture and aquaculture. The reuse of WW finds increased application in irrigation but the presence of toxic elements and microorganisms limits its use for irrigation purpose. To reduce the contamination of WW for irrigation, drip system is seen as an appropriate choice due to restricted quantity of water application. Emitter clogging is viewed as the main problem associated with drip system for its large-scale use with WW. Physical and chemical characteristics of WW were restricted. Higher EC, pH, Mg, and CO3, higher turbidity, total solids,
HCO3, and Ca were observed in the waste water treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 653-688 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.52

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Evaluation of Quality Properties of Melissa Leaves by Different Drying Methods

Ginat El-sherif, Elsayed M. and Hasnaa M. Abo Taleb

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluation the quality properties of Melissa leaves by different drying methods on contents of total phenolic, total flavonoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoids, total color density, browning index and essential oils, results showed that all methods of drying used (ventilated oven, microwave & shade and shade-drying) significantly decreased in content of these properties when compared with fresh leaves. The less effect was observed using microwave & Shade followed by Shade-drying while the greatest effect was observed using ventilated oven. Different drying methods which used had effect on the content of Melissa leaves essential oil. The main components of the essential oil of microwave & Shade were 4-hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin and β Carotene, while in shade-drying were 3, 2, 4, 5-Tetramethoxyflavone, iso Vitexin and4- hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin but in ventilated oven were 4-hydroxy-7-methylcoumarin and Petunidin cation.

[ ULL TEXT PDF 689-F697 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.53

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Genetic diversity among Chinese and Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm accessions based on 19 morphological traits and 16 new microsatellites marker

Hassan H.A. Mostafa, Wang Haiping, Song Jiangping, Zhang Xiaohui and Li Xixiang

ABSTRACT: This investigation aims to develop new SSR primers for assessing the genetic variation of garlic (Allium sativum, L.) germplasm resources collected from Egypt and China, and also between selected clones and their parents, to provide useful information for efficient management and enhancement of garlic germplasm resources. Genetic diversity of Chinese (83 accessions) and Egyptians (21 accessions) garlic germplasm were analyzed using 19 morphological traits and 16 newly developed microsatellites (SSR) primers. The 16 new SSR primer pairs generated a total of 45 alleles across the 104 garlic germplasm. The number of alleles revealed by each primer pair ranged from 2 to 4 and the average polymorphic alleles per locus was 2.81. The allele frequency ranged from 0.4183 to 0.9183. The gene diversity ranged from 0.1529 to 0.6670. Moreover, the observed PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) ranged from 0.1463 to 0.6175 and the average of heterozygosity was 0.4945. The dendrogram constructed based on the SSR data divided the 104 garlic germplasm into three main clusters. The clustering analysis based on morphological characters separated all the germplasm into two major clusters. In the two dendrograms, the genetic relationships among accessions are basically similar. Generally, it could be noticed that both of dendrograms were almost in accordance with geographical origin. Besides, the analysis result by 12 primers of 16 novel SSR primers confirmed the genetic variation between selected clones and their parents, which shows that clonal selection from a natural variation population can be effective for genetic improvement in garlic.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 698-710 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.54

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Effect of salinity stress on growth, chemical constituents and stem anatomy of Duranta erecta L. plants

Nahed G. Abdel-Aziz, Azza A. Mazher, Mona H. Mahgub, Mona A. Darwish, Rania M. A. Nassar and Ahmed S. Abdel-Aal

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out at the Ornamental Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, during the two successive seasons of 2014 and 2015 in order to enhance the growth of duranta plants grown under different concentrations of salinity (2000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 ppm of salt mixture, NaCl: CaCl2, 1:1w/w) by foliar application of 200 and 400 ppm ascorbic acid. The results showed that, growing the plants under 2000 ppm salinity + 200 ppm ascorbic acid gave the highest values of number of branches, root length, fresh and dry weight of leaves, cl ( a, b), N%, P% and K% concentrations in both seasons. While, growing the plants under 4000 ppm salinity + 200 ppm ascorbic acid gave the highest value of plant height in both seasons. Data also reveal that the application of 400 ppm ascorbic acid grown under stress of 8000 ppm salinity caused enhancement in stem structure of salinized plants. Such treatment caused recovery more than 80% of the reduction occurred in all included tissues of the main stem where their meanvalues were almost reached the level of the control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 711-720 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.55

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In vitro slow growth storage of date palm Phoinex dactylifera cv. Gondelah using somatic embryo and the shoot cultures

Maiada M. El-Dawayati

ABSTRACT: In vitro germplasm conservation is one of the main axes in the date palm (Phoinex dactylifera) micropropagation protocol. In the present study, a set of slow growth storage treatments planned by using the manipulation of the MS salts strength, besides adding the abscisic acid (ABA) growth retardant, to the storage culture media of tow regenerative in vitro germplasm materials, i.e., the somatic embryo and the shoot cultures, of the date palm Gondelah cultivar. The investigated study conducted by observing the growth ability under the conservation conditions, the survival and the recovery growth, after the conservation period for 18 months at 15 ˚C of the minimal growth conditions, the results revealed that half-MS strength medium, supplemented with ABA growth retardant at 8 mg/l, was the best to sustain the slow growth storage and the recovery of the date palm somatic embryo clusters explants. On the other hand, the full-MS medium supplemented with ABA growth retardant at 8 mg/l was most suitable for the in vitro preservation and the recovery of the shoot clusters of the date palm, Gondelah cultivar. Where, all recovered explants could regenerate as full intact plantlets, and successfully transferred to the acclimatization stage, to be available for the commercial or research purposes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 721-736 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.56

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