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Oct-Dec, 2019

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Effect of grafting date and rootstock type on vegetative growth parameters of Flame seedless grape grafted on three nematode resistant rootstocks

Abourayya M.S., K.E. Nabila, A.S.E. Abd-Allah and R.A.M. Amal

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2012 and 2013 in a private vineyard located at Sadat city, Menofia Governorate, Egypt. to investigate the influence of three grapevine rootstocks; namely, Harmony, Freedom and Salt creek at two different grafting dates using Cleft grafting method on the percentage of survival and growth parameters of Flame seedless cv. at two grafting dates.(January and February months). The survival percentage and (F.C.C.) varied significantly according to rootstock type, grafting dates and the interaction between them. Freedom rootstock recorded the highest survival percentage and (F.C.C.) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively, while Harmony rootstock exhibited the lowest figures in both seasons, regardless of grafting date. Meanwhile, rootstocks grafted in mid February recorded significantly higher survival percentage in 2012 and 2013 seasons than those grafted on mid January regardless of rootstock type. The same result was detected for F.C.C. value in 2012 season only. On the other hand, Feb. grafting exhibited greater shoot length and leaf area than Jan. grafting regardless of rootstock type. The interaction between rootstock type and grafting date showed that Flame seedless cv. grafted on Freedom rootstock on mid February gained the maximum values of scion shoot length (93.84 and 100.15 cm) and leaf area (130.35 and 143.69 cm2) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively. Contrastly, the same scion when grafted on Harmony rootstock on mid January recorded the minimum value of shoot length (59.12 and 56.16 cm) and leaf area (51.27 and 64.10 cm2) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively. Freedom rootstock recorded the maximum figures of fresh and dryweight of the aerial portion (leaves and shoots) and root systemin the two seasons followed by Salt creek rootstock without significant difference between them. While, Harmony rootstock showed the minimum values in the two studied seasons. Grafting in Feb. 15th was better than in Jan. 15th especially in 2012 season regardless of rootstock type.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 967-972 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.1

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Influence of Some Nitrogen Fertilization and Dry Yeast Extract Levels on Growth and Pod Yield of Snap Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Nadia Al-Munir Abu Khouder, Abd Al-Rahman M. S. Abobaker and Kholoud Mohamed El- Amin Al- Mashat

ABSTRACT: This investigation was carried out during two successive summer seasons of 2015 and 2016 in a private farm at Al-Harsha, Zawia region, Libya, to examine the effect of N-Fertilization (in the form of ammonium sulphate, 20.5% N"; 0, 50 and 100kg/ha")and foliar application with dry yeast extracts (0.2 and 4 g/l) , and its combined effect on growth, yield and its attributes, as well as, quality traits of snap bean (bronco cultivar). The experiment was laid out as spilt plot arrangement in randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that applying N-Fertilizer and foliar application with dry yeast extract gave significant differences in all studied traits compared to the control (untreated) in favor of 100kg/ha, N and 4g/l dry yeast extract in both seasons. Concerning the combined effect between N-Fertilization and dry yeast extract, there were significant effects in most of studied traits in both seasons. The combination of 100kg N/ha, and 4 g/l dry yeast extract recorded the highest mean values of vegetative growth characters yield components, total yield and pod quality in the both seasons. Conclusively: it could be concluded that the treatment of NFertilization in the form of ammonium sulphate (20.5% N) at 100 kg N/ha and foliar application with dry yeast extract at the level of 4 g/l, as well as, the combined effect between 100 kg N/ha and 4 g/l dry yeast extract enhancing the studied characters of snap bean.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 973-982 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.2

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Silicon in soils, plants and its important role in crop production: A review

E-Sayed A.A., Abou Seeda M.A., Yassen A.A., Sahar M. Zaghloul and A. Khater

ABSTRACT: Silicon in soil solution is present as silicic acid, at concentrations normally ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 mM, roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of phosphorus. Cropping system cannot allow for recycling Silicon element by plants. The decrease of bioavailable-Si may have significant impacts on cereal crops. The assumption of the depletion of plant available-Si is still admissible, but new conspicuous have proven that phytoliths are a significant source of Silicon for plant. Plants uptake silicon in silicic acid form. Silicon concentrations vary greatly in plant aboveground parts, ranging from 0.1 to 10.0% SiO2 of dry weight basis or even higher. The difference in Si accumulation attributed to the ability of the roots to take up Si. It is obvious that most of the effects of Si were expressed through Si deposition on the leaves, stems, and hulls. In spite of Si has not been proven to be an essential element for higher plants, it is a beneficial element for the healthy growth and development and even productivity of many crop species, particularly for rice which contains about 10% SiO2 in shoots on a dry weight basis. The beneficial effects of Si are particularly distinct in plants exposed to biotic or abiotic stress. Silicon is effective in controlling various pests and diseases caused by both fungi and bacteria in different plant species. Silicon also exerts alleviative effects on various abiotic stresses including salt stress, metal toxicity, drought stress, radiation damage, nutrient imbalance, high temperature, freezing and so on. Also, Silicon has been widely reported to alleviate the plant water status and water balance, especially under various stress conditions in both monocot and dicot plants Numerous research studies showing that the application of Si enhances the tolerance of some plant species to toxic metals, including manganese Mn, zinc Zn aluminum Al, cadmium Cd and arsenic As. In addition, studies have shown that Si alleviates growth inhibition and oxidative damage.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 983-1004 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.3

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Function of silicon and its mechanisms in plant physiology: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., A.A. Yassen, A.A. Sayed Sahar M. Zaghloul1 and A.khater

ABSTRACT: Silicon (Si) is the most prevalent macroelements in soil, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The assumption of the depletion of plant available- Si is still admissible, but new evident have establish that phytoliths are a denoting derivation of Silicon for plant growth. Biotic and abiotic stress factors can adversely affect the agricultural productivity pleading to physiological and biochemical damage to crops. Therefore, the most effective way to overcome such negative effects is to increase the resistance to stresses. Silicon plays a vital role in reducing the negative effects of abiotic and biotic stresses on plants. Silicon is accumulated in the cell walls and intercellular spaces and increase its strength, and thus it has beneficial effects on disease infestations in especially small grains. In addition, application of silicon may reduce the effects of environmental stresses on plants while making effective use of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Reducing, the toxic effects of heavy metals in soil. It may protect the foliage and increase light uptake and reduce respiration. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may affected by Si treatment. Generally, plant physiologists consider an essential element by two criteria. (a): if a deficiency of it makes it impossible for the plant to complete its life cycle, therefore, the element must be directly involved in the inorganic nutrition of the plant. (b): it is contributed as a part of the molecule of an essential plant constituent or metabolite. It is by the first criterion that the essentiality of the elements now known to be essential has been established. Conceptually, it is a simple, operational definition. In practice, it is not necessarily easy to apply if, as is the case with Si, it is difficult to create and maintain an environment adequately purged of the element. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si (OH) 4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1005-1024 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.4

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Regeneration of some grape rootstock shoot tips after cryopreservation by dropletvitrification

El-Homosany A. Abd El-Wahab and Mina Samaan

ABSTRACT: Shoot tips of three grape Vitis vinifera rootstocks (Freedom, Salt creek and SO4) were excised and precultured on half strength MS medium supplemented with (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 M sucrose) for 4 days (24 hours for each concentration successively) and loaded with 2M glycerol+0.4M sucrose + half strength MS for 20 min at 25°C, then exposed at 0°C for 0, 40 and 50 min to full strength of Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) carried on an aluminum foil strip, further immersed in Liquid Nitrogen. Results showed that the highest survival percentage of shoot tips after cryopreservation was observed with 50 min exposure time of pvs2 (80, 66.67 and 53.33%) for SO4, Freedom and Salt creek rootstock also, SO4 rootstock gave (53.33%) when exposure to 40 min of pvs2 after cryopreservation. On the other hand, shoot tips of the three rootstocks on zero time of exposure to pvs2 after cryopreservation failed to survive (0%). In addition, shoot tips after cryopreservation with 50 min exposure time gave the highest regrowth percentages (46.67%, 33.33% and 26.67%) for SO4, Freedom and Salt creek rootstock also, SO4 rootstock gave (33.33%) when exposure to 40 min of pvs2 after cryopreservation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1025-1030 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.5

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