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April-June 2020

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Effect of Organic Acids and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Biochemical Content and Productivity of Wheat under Saline Soil Conditions

Soad Y. S. El-Sayed, Rehab H. Hagab

ABSTRACT: An experiment was done to examine the survival ability of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria PGPR under investigation (Rhizobium leguminosarum and Paenibacillus polymyxa) under salt stress to ensure their efficiency in saline soil when they used as PGPR inoculants. Data revealed the initial screening by spotting on media supplemented with different concentrations of salt (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5M NaCl) in which indicated that R. leguminosarum and P. polymyxa were able to grow at all concentrations of NaCl with different log numbers. However, the growth was reduced as the concentration of NaCl increased. Also, data revealed that both R. leguminosarum and P. polymyxa succeed to solubilize the phosphorus and produce IAA at the NaCl concentrations 0.3 and 1.5M NaCl. However, P. polymyxa show highest P-solubilization ability at different salt concentrations. The data also revealed the potentiality of testing PGPR in production of HCN and siderophores at different concentrations of NaCl, in which both PGPR have the ability to produce HCN and siderophores at 0.3 and 1.5M NaCl however P. polymyxa was superior in production of HCN and siderophore. A field experiment was conducted at the Sahl El-Hussinia, El-Sharkia governorate, Egypt during winter-growing season of 2018/2019 to study the effect of PGPR (R. leguminosarum and P. polymyxa) inoculants and foliar application of organic acids (humic and ascorbic acids) on wheat growth and productivity under salt stress. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD).The results showed that, the best treatment was (AsA +HA+ mixture of PGPR) treatment has a high biological yield, which increased by 43.00%, grain yield by 43.11% and led to increases in 1000-grain weight by 35.19%. In addition, chemical constituents as (antioxidant activity, phenolic components and NPK uptake) of wheat crop gave the
highest significant value by (AsA +HA+ mixture of PGPR) treatment. It is obvious from obtaining data in this study that all treatments play an important role in the alleviation of salt stress on wheat plants through their positive effect on biochemical contents of the plant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 227-242 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.20

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Effects of Serratia marcescens and Prodigiosin Pigment on the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

Omnia M. Mohamd, Rania A. A. Hussein, Dina S. S. Ibrahim, Mona H. Badawi and Hussien E. Makboul

ABSTRACT: The effect of Serratia marcescens culture and culture filtrate on juvenile mortality of the rootknot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was studied in vitro and in vivo on tomato seedlings. The percent of mortality was proportional to the concentration of culture filtrate and exposure period. Prodigiosin from S. marcescens was extracted with actone and ethyl acetate then purified using
puriflash column and characterized by TLC, mass spectrometry, FTIR. Prodigiosin was screened for controlling root-knot nematode at juvenile stage. The obtained results revealed that the molecular weight of the pigment was 324.7 m/z, this confirms that the pigment extracted from S. marcescens is prodigiosin. In FTIR analysis red pigment from S. marcescens revealed absorption at 3315.3 per cm (N-H) and 2941.6 per cm (aromatic C-H), 1450 (C-H) alkenes, 1020, 1141 (C-O, C-N) carboxylic groups. Bacterial cultures showed better results than the control of nematode alone with a value of 58.5 % for juveniles mortality. The culture filtrate of S. marcescens at the four tested concentrations showed nematicidal activities against newly hatched juveniles of M. incognita after 72 h of exposure. The pigment was found effective against juvenile stage of M. incognita at low concentrations (EC50 value after 72 h was 31.9 mg ml-1). It is proved that the use of microbial secondary metabolites can be effective for nematode control rather than using whole organism.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 243-252 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.21

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Metabolites of Aquatic Cyanobacteria Represent a Unique Source of Biopharmaceutical Agents

El Hanafi K.M., Badawi H. Mona and Waleed D. Saleh

ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria constitute a vast potential resource in various applications such as pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, feed, fuel, fertilizer, industry and in combating pollution. In this study, the biodiversity of aquatic cyanobacteria was monitored in various water resources representing those of the River Nile at Giza and Ain Sokhna, Red sea in Egypt as well as some United Arab
Emirates water supplies. Total number of six isolates were secured and subjected for morphological and microscopic examinations. Three isolates representing the most common members were identified using the molecular biology techniques. Those were closely related to the genera Anabaena sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Synechocystis sp. of the Gene Bank. They were evaluated for their potential capacities as anti-fungal and anti-bacterial agents as well as measuring their anti-oxidant activities. The examinations of chloroform, diethyl, hexane and methanol extracts of the tested cyanobacterial cultures indicated the presence of several metabolites including 9-hexadecenoic acid, leukotriene C4, neophytadiene, phthalic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecenoic acid, octasiloxane hexadecamethyl, phytol acetate, octadecadienoyl chloride and cyclohexasiloxane dodecamethyl. Adopting the disk
diffusion method, the cyanobacterial extracts as anti-bacterial substances arranged the examined cultures in the descending order of Anabaena > Synechocystis > Oscillatoria with inhibition zone averages of 11.3, 10.7 and 10.3 mm respectively. Similarly, the experimented microbiota considerably varied in their anti-fungal capabilities where the cyanobacterium Anabaena seemed the most active one. In respect to the anti-oxidant activity, Oscillatoria was the pioneer among the other tested ones. All in all, this study supports the applicability of such very unique aquatic creatures in the biotechnological approaches and pharmaceutical ones in particular.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 253-269 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.22

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Influence of Plant Densities Interacted with Boron Foliar spraying on sunflower productivity

Abido, W.A.E. and El-Shimaa A.M. Abo-El-Kheer

ABSTRACT: Plant densities and born fertilizer had a great importance among the agronomic factors that have a strong effect on plant productivity. For this reason, two experiments were performed at Kafralgraidh Village, Kafrelshiekh Governorate, Egypt, during 2018 and 2019 summer seasons using a strip-plot design with four replicates to investigate the effects of four plant densities (23333, 28000, 35000 and 46666 plant/fed) resulted from four hill spacing (30, 25, 20 and 15 cm), respectively and five boron foliar application i.e. without foliar spraying as control treatment, foliar spraying with water and three levels of boron foliar fertilizer (100, 150 and 200 ppm), on growth parameters, yield, its attributes, seeds oil content and its qualities of sunflower. The obtained results declared that plant densities significantly affected plant growth characters, yield, and its attributes and oil content as well as oil qualities. Results indicated that the maximum averages of total chlorophyll content, stem height, stem diameter, head diameter, 1000-achenes weight and achenes weight/head were resulted from the lowest plant density 23333 plants/fed. While, the highest averages of leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), achenes yield/fed and oil, oleic and linoleic contents were recorded with a plant density of 35000 plants/fed. Otherwise, increasing plant density from 23333 to 46666 plant/fed caused a gradual increased in palmitic and stearic contents. Data also declared that the foliar spraying with boron significantly influenced all studied characters. The maximum averages of all studied characters were recorded from foliar spraying with 200 ppm of boron. Therefore, for maximizing the achenes yield oil content of sunflower plants it could be recommended to sowing at a plant density of 35000 plants/fed resulted from hill spacing 20 cm, also spraying plants with 200 ppm of boron under the ecological conditions of the experiment area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 270-281 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.23

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Technical Efficiency and Technological Gaps in Agricultural Production in Selected African Countries: A Stochastic Metafrontier Approach

Aminu F.O., Ayinde I.A. and Sanusi R.A.

ABSTRACT: The study applied stochastic metafrontier model to estimate technical efficiency (TE) and technology gap ratios (TGR) in agricultural production of selected African countries. Secondary data on Agricultural production indices of four Africa countries (Nigeria, Benin, Ghana and Cameroon) over a period of 54 years (1961-2014) sourced from Food and Agricultural Organization (FAOSTAT) database was used for the study. The results of the analysis showed that, the technical efficiency scores from the region ranged from 0.822 to 0.986 with a weighted average of about 85%, indicating that the agricultural production in Africa produces 85 percent of the potential output given the technology available in each country. Also, the technological gap faced by the agriculture sector in the selected countries when their performances were compared with the regional level was estimated to be 0.774, which implies that, on the average, the selected Africa countries will have to close a gap of about 22.6% in order for them to be technically efficient. Benin recorded the lowest productivity potential ratio, while Ghana had the highest. In terms of technical efficiency relative to the meta frontier, Nigeria is the most technical efficient country while Benin appears as the least performing region. Considering the importance of agricultural production to these countries and the region as a whole, there is a need for appropriate policies directed towards the provision of technology related services that would enhance efficiency.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 282-293 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.24

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Foliar supplementation with micronutrients during early growth of bitter gourd fruit (Momordica charantia) augments resistance to melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) infestation by activation of antioxidant system

Seshadri Shivashankar and Manoharan Sumathi

ABSTRACT: Melon fly is the most destructive pest of cucurbits all over the world. Although, the pest is controlled by the use of insecticides, the risks of development of resistance in the pest due to continued application of pesticide and accumulation of toxic residues in fruits have led to the search for alternative non-chemical control strategies which are eco-safe and environment friendly. In this study, an attempt was made to examine the effect of foliar mineral nutrition on pest incidence and fruit quality. The field study was laid out in a Randomized complete block design in which bitter gourd fruits during the early fruit development phase were sprayed with micronutrient solution containing Ca, Cu, Mg and Mn. Results showed that melon fly infestation was significantly reduced coupled with increased fruit yield and quality. Treated fruits showed significantly higher levels of antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids compared to Control indicating that mineral nutrients protect bitter gourd through activation of antioxidant system in the host combined with their inhibitory effects on oviposition, adult emergence and increased mortality of melon fly larvae. The study established that resistance to melon fly could be induced by supplementing the levels of Ca, Cu, Mg and Mn in bitter gourd fruit by exogenous application at a time when the fruit is most vulnerable to infestation. It appears, therefore, possible to explore foliar micronutrient supplementation as a component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy for the successful control of melon fly infestation in bitter gourd coupled with higher yield and improved fruit quality.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 294-307 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.25

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Production of stunted pot plants from Ruellia simplex

T.M. Noor El-Deen

ABSTRACT: A pot experiment was carried out at Botanical Garden of National Gene Bank, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt during 2018 and 2019 seasons to investigate the effect of pinching treatments and foliar spraying with paclobutrazol (PBZ) on Mexican petunia (Ruellia simplex C.Wright), aiming to produce more compact plants. Three pinching treatments (non, single after 1 month from transplanting and double after 1 and 3 months from transplanting) and 4 PBZ concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm at one-month interval and their combined treatments laid out as a factorial RCBD was employed in this study. Best single-treatment results of dense foliage were found with single pinching or PBZ at either 50 or 100 ppm. As for combined effects, single pinching + spraying with PBZ at 100 ppm was the superior combined treatment; with a reduced plant height by 50.17 and 50.06%, increased number of branches/plant by 95.85 and 96.18%, reduced number of leaves/plant by only 10.27 and 9.26% and increased number of flowers/plant by 51.97 and 48.43% in both seasons, respectively. However, this treatment delayed flowering by 5.3 days in the first season only. The highest values regarding chlorophylls (a and b), carotenoids and total indoles were recorded by this superior combined treatment. Finally, it is recommended to treat Mexican petunia plants cultivated in 16-cm-pots filled with peat moss + perlite (1:1 by volume) with single pinch after 1 month from transplanting + 4 applications at one-month interval with PBZ at 100 ppm
for optimum stunting with satisfied quality as pot plant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 308-320 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.26

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Street food vendors’ entrepreneurial marketing characteristics and practices from 12 countries: what lessons can be learnt for improving food marketing in BOP/Subsistence marketplaces

Martin Hilmi

ABSTRACT: The research was conducted to ascertain, assess and diagnose street food vendors’ entrepreneurial marketing characteristics and practices in BOP/subsistence marketplaces and what lessons could be leant that may be of use to improve food marketing in BOP/subsistence marketplaces. The research was conducted via a qualitative abductive research method using secondary sources of data and information provided from case studies on street food vendors’ marketing practices from 12 countries: Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Ghana, India, Nepal, Niger, Republic of South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, and Zimbabwe. The collected secondary data and information, was analyzed on the one side using content analysis and on the other side, using a more open approach, grounded theory. In the analysis seven entrepreneurial marketing characteristics out of the total 19 characteristics found were the same or related to a degree to street food vendors’ marketing characteristics. In specific, in terms of street food vendors’ entrepreneurial marketing characteristics, it was found that networks, knowledge of market demand, risk-taking, self-confidence (calculated risk-taking), low production costs (resource constrained), customer-relationships, and value creation were all an integral part of practice. It was found also that street food vendors’ marketing characteristics were a ‘mix’ of entrepreneurial, micro, small and traditional marketing. The lessons learnt were, that for food marketing to be effective in BOP contexts, requires not simply knowing a market, but having a full understanding of the market (immersion), which for example attempts to understand not just the market, but the social ties and other aspects that may underline, for example, market demand. Immersion in such markets enables to build effective networks with, for example, social relations, word of mouth and social media. Further BOP contexts are risky and such risk can be mitigated via market immersion and networking so as to enable to take calculated risks and ensure risk is managed in appropriate ways. Costs must be kept low so as to be able to provide for low food
prices, for example, in food marketing and customer relations are a vital necessity for food marketing in the BOP context. Such practices can support improved and more intensive food distribution and possibly support the reduction in malnourishment, hunger and starvation. Clearly there may be more lessons to be learnt for marketing food in BOP contexts that can contribute further to food marketing knowledge and also to marketing knowledge more in general. Thus further research is called for in this realm.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 321-348 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.27

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Climate Smarting Local Rural to Urban Food Systems with the Green Food Value Chain Development approach: What lessons can be learnt?

Martin Hilmi

ABSTRACT: The main objective of the research was to investigate further, via literature, secondary sources of data and information and field work conducted in one city, Erbil, Iraq, the climate smarting of local food systems considering the rural, peri-urban and urban context. The research in particular focused on looking at climate smarting local food value chains, via the green food value chain development approach, and attempting to verify what lessons may be learnt. A local-based perspective, green food value chain development, enables concrete actions to be taken where, in fact, the majority of activities in food systems take place. The approach, takes a holistic and systemic focus on developing food value chains with an overall environmental perspective and priority, in other words greening and climate smarting. The article provides for an initial context in terms of increasing climate change, natural environment degradation, and the incremental rise of population concentrations in peri-urban and urban areas and how such challenges have and are fundamentally altering food system operations for providing food security. It characterises food systems and food value chains within this context, considers how food systems affect climate change, describes the green food value chain development approach and provides for research findings derived from literature, secondary sources of data and information, and from filed work conducted in one city, Erbil, Iraq. The findings provided that, for example, strengthening rural to urban linkages and improving governance and implementing regulations, foster and enhance a low-carbon development pathway. From the findings a number of lessons were learnt, for example, the need for a systemic and holistic process that enables synergy
among the various factors that contribute and enhance climate smarting and greening, to the centrality of multi-stakeholder partnerships and platforms, to awareness creation for climate smarting and greening targeted at policy-makers, provided by an effective communication strategy. Such lessons learnt also contributed to further enhancing knowledge and know-how of the green food value chain development approach, and at the same time, identified further areas for research.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 349-376 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.28

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Field evaluation of some organic and inorganic fertilizers for management ofHeterodera avenae infecting wheat

Korayem A.M., M.M.M. Mohamed, M.M.A. Hammam and S.D. Abou-Hussein

ABSTRACT: Two field trials were conducted in a wheat farm naturally infested with the wheat cyst nematode Heterodera avenae. The first trial was done to evaluate humic and fulvic acids as organic fertilizers, NPK and ammonium nitrate as inorganic fertilizers for their potential to manage H. avenae infecting wheat, in comparison with oxamyl (a chemical nematicide). The second trial was done to evaluate over rates of nitrogen (urea 46%) for their suppressive effect against H. avenae. Results indicated that all organic and inorganic fertilizers plus oxamyl clearly improved growth parameters of wheat and reduced nematode reproduction, except of NPK treatment. Plant growth and grain yield were greater by fulvic acid and humic acid, as compared with ammonium nitrate and oxamyl. Grain yield weight/1m2 increased by 37.5%, 20.3%, 18.8% and 18.8% at fulvic acid, humic acid, ammonium nitrate and oxamyl, over control, respectively. The rates of nematode reproduction were reduced by all treatments except of NPK one, they reduced by 23.9%, 20.6%, 16.0% and 13.7% at oxamyl, ammonium nitrate, fulvic acid and humic acid, respectively, however no significant differences
between them were detected. Results also showed that all urea rates increased wheat growth parameters and reduced nematode development and reproduction. Greater grain yield (615 g/1m2) and harvest index (0.420) were obtained at 24 N rate. All nitrogen rates reduced both the 2-nd stage juveniles in soil 30 days after urea application and the rate of nematode reproduction. Greater reductions in J2 and rate of nematode reproduction 49% and 40.9% were occurred at 48 N rate, respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 377-387 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.29

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Physiological role of arginine on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown under water drought condition

Ahmed M.A., Magda, A.F. Shalaby and Reda E. Essa

ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: Two field experiments were conducted at, Agricultural Experimental Station Research Centre of National Research Centre, Nubaria, El-Behera Governorate, Egypt, during two successive seasons; 2017/2018 and 2018/2019. Each experiment was arranged in split- split plot design with four replicates. The present study investigated the effect of arginine (Ar) as amino acid priming agent, applied as foliar application spray, on growth, yield and its components, some chemical constituents of yielded grains of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.,) cv., Gemiza-9 and Misr-2 under drought. Moreover, the study aims to determine suitable concentrations of (Ar) as exogenous treatment to enhance wheat tolerance to drought. Methods: Foliar application spray with three levels of arginine (0, 2 and 4 mM/l) were applied twice after 50 and 60 days from sowing to increase the tolerance drought of wheat cultivars which irrigated with four treatments from water stress (Normal irrigation as a control, Once irrigation at tillering, germination and ripening stages) on two wheat cultivars (Gemiza-9 and Misr-2). Results: The obtained results clearly indicated the role of Ar increasing the tolerance of wheat plants to drought. The highest rates of arginine led to significant increase in growth, yield and its components as well as chemical constituents of the wheat grains in both growing seasons. Conclusion: The magnitude of increments was pronounced in response to wheat cultivar Misr-2 and 4 mM/l of arginine as a foliar spray which led to positive changes in all studied parameters under normal irrigation. All treatments were effective in alleviating the harmful effect of drought.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 388-404 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.30

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An Analytical Study of Spending on Red Meat in the Urban and Rural Areas of Fayoum Governorate

Yehia M.M. Khalil, Nagwa M. El-agroudy, Fatima A. Shafiq and Soheir Mokhtar

ABSTRACT: Red meat conspicuously represents one of the most important sources of animal protein for the Egyptian consumer. Besides, the relative importance of calories from animal protein to the Egyptian citizen is about 4.8%, while its counterpart in some developed countries is about 31%. The consumer suffers from unbalance in terms of health. This is due this relatively more dependence on vegetable protein. The research problem lies in increasing the rates of red meat consumption year after year as a result of the forced increase in the population. This is in addition to the small production of red meat, which led to widening the gap between production and consumption. The research aimed at studying the development of production and consumption, the average per capita share, the percentage of selfsufficiency and the size of the food gap of red meat during the period (2000-2018) as well as studying the agreement function of the study sample at different income levels. The study relied on the secondary data collected from the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics and the Ministry of Agriculture. Besides, it depends mainly on the primary data collected through the questionnaire form for a random sample consisting of 312 families from Fayoum Governorate
distributed as follows 147 families from the urban in Fayoum Center and 165 families from the rural in Fayoum Center in 2019. The study showed an increase in both production and consumption. Besides, the average share per capita of red meat had a statistically significant increase estimated at 14.6, 36.8 thousand tons, 0.151 kg / year respectively during the study period (2000-2001), while the rate of self-sufficiency achieved an annual statistically significant decrease of about 1.1%. Moreover, a random sample consisting of 312 families from Fayoum Governorate distributed as follows 147 families from the urban in Fayoum Center and 165 families from the rural in Fayoum Center in 2019. The sample was divided into three categories according to the family income, the first category is less than (2000 pounds), the second category (2000-4000 pounds), third category (more than 4000 pounds). The Stage Regression is used in the bi-logarithmic form to determine the most important factors affecting spending on red meat in the study sample in the urban and rural of different income categories at Fayoum. The results indicated that there is a direct relationship between the families’s spending on red meat, the average monthly family income, the number of family members, and an inverse relationship with the price of meat in the countryside and urban areas. Finally, red meat is a luxury item especially in low-income families.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 405-410 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.31

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Effect of Chemical, Organic and Bio-fertilizers on the Availability of some Nutrients in Grafted Orange Seedlings

Ayad Hani Ismail Al-Allaf and Nameer Najib Fadel Hadeed

ABSTRACT: The experiment aimed to show the demonstrate of two spring grafting dates (2nd and 17th April) and fertilization of local oranges seedlings grafted on bitter orange rootstock to compound fertilizer (NPK) at 30 g/seedling, organic liquid fertilizer "Nutrigreen" at 6 ml/L and using three types of biofertilizers such as Biogen at 3 and 6 g/ seedling, Potasiomag at 5 and 10 g/ seedling and Fulzyme at 1 g/ seedling as a nutrient elements. The experiment was designed using of the complete randomized block design (RCBD) with three replicates and five seedlings per experimental unit. Averages were compared using Dunkin test at 5% level. The results showed that there were significant differences between the dates of grafting with nutrient elements, while treatment of NPK compound fertilizer was superior to the treatment of 30 g/seedling comparison with the nutrient elements of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil. In addition, the organic and bio liquid fertilizers were significantly superior to the comparison treatment with the nutrient elements of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in the soil.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 411-419 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.32

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Economic and Social Empowerment of Women in Egypt. Current and future status

Ahlam Ahmed Hassan

ABSTRACT: Egyptian women have proved that they are able to take responsibility in various fields, led by increasing the economic empowerment of women through improving the participation of women in work and raising the proportion of projects directed to women, and importance of Women's Empowerment in societies is clear because Empowerment is one of the main procedural concerns when addressing human rights and development Women's Empowerment and achieving gender equality is essential for our society to ensure the sustainable development of the country. The research problem is the study of ways the Egyptian state seeks to increase the economic empowerment of women in Egypt, especially rural women. Thus, the study aimed to increase the economic and social empowerment of women, especially rural women, by owning and managing the means of production The most important results reached were that women constitute almost half of the society, and the average number of females reached about 41 million during the period (2007-2017) ,and the females percentage of the total population is about 49.20%, which is high, therefore, it is large proportion cannot neglect its role and contribution to development.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 420-433 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.33

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Goat Manure Fertilization Effect on Saponin and Protein Content in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) Grain of Different Origin

Juan Antonio González, Emilio Fernando Lizarraga, Luis Ernesto Erazzú, Luciana Martinez-Calsina, Sebastián Edgardo Buedo and Daniela Alejandra González

ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: A field experiment using two quinoa varieties (Regalona Baer and CICA) was performed to determine the effects of goat manure fertilization on saponin and protein grain content was performed. A trial was conducted in a valley at 2,000 m a.s.l (Tucumán, Argentina) and at different levels of goat manure addition equivalent to 0, 32, 64, 128, 192 kg N/ha.
Findings: Saponin and protein content increased almost linearly as goat manure fertilization increased. However, there was a varietal difference, R. Baer synthesized more saponin than CICA at the same nitrogen level. Conclusions: The study indicated that the quinoa saponin content, in absence of water stress and salinity, but under the same agronomical managements, increased linearly with goat manure addition. Probably the differences in response to fertilization of both varieties were related to the genotypes origin, one from high mountain (CICA) and the other from lowland (R. Baer). Significance and novelty: Goat manure fertilization on quinoa produced more proteins but the saponin synthesis increased in the same way. Additionally, quinoa varieties showed variability for the saponin content. Thus, it is necessary to found an equilibrium point to produce a grain for human consumption with high protein and low saponin content or a grain with high protein and high saponin content for a later industrial separation of both compounds.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 434-443 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.34

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Response of Local Orange Grafted to the Date of Grafting, Chemical, Organic and Bio-fertilizers

Ayad Hani Ismail Al-Allaf and Nameer Najib Fadel Hadeed

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out in the wooden canopy belonging to the Department of Horticulture and Garden Engineering Faculty of Agriculture "Mosal Univ" during the growing season 2018 in order to demonstrate the importance of the effect of two dates for spring grafting (2nd and 17th April) and fertilization of local oranges seedlings grafted on bitter orange rootstock to compound fertilizer (NPK) at 30 g/seedling, organic liquid fertilizer "Nutrigreen" at 6 ml/L and using three types of biofertilizers such as Biogen at 3 and 6 g/ seedling, Potasiomag at 5 and 10 g/ seedling and Fulzyme at 1 g/ seedling as a nutrient elements. The experiment was designed using of the complete randomized block design (RCBD) with three replicates and five seedlings per experimental unit. Averages were compared using Dunkin test at 5% level.The results showed that the first date of grafting (2nd April) affected significantly the characteristics studied, especially the percentage of successful grafts, the number of leaves and the leaf content of nitrogen. The bio-fertilization treatments with Biogen and Potasiomag were significantly superior to other fertilizer treatments, especially the control treatment by the percentage of successful grafts, the number of leaves and the leaf content of nitrogen phosphorous and potassium.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 444-454 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.35

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Impact of Mature Compost Derivatives and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth and Productivity of Pea Plants

Mahmoud Y.I., El-Akshar Y.S., Abd Elgwad Sh. A. and Afifi M.M.I.

ABSTRACT: The rice straw was composted with cattle dung, as a raw material, and inoculated with a mixture of Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The humic substances (HS) and compost tea (CT) were prepared after the compost maturation phase. The study aimed to evaluate the biostimulant activity of HS and CT, as organic fertilizer integrated with synthetic inorganic fertilizers (NPK), on the rhizosphere biological activity, growth and productivity of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in clay soil. The data revealed that addition of organic fertilizers at different forms or rates stimulated high microbial count as compared with mineral fertilizers. As the rate of mineral fertilizers increased (50, 75 to 100% of NPK) the biological status revealed a depletion either in the total microbial count or the enzyme activities. The absolute addition of a full dose of mineral fertilizers has prohibited the nodulation on pea plants while that organic fertilizers at different forms (CT or HS) or two rates (50 or 100%) have fostered the nodulation on the base of nodules number or nodules dry weight. The combined addition of compost tea and humic substances with half dose or 75% of NPK revealed improvement in the nutrition status, in seed and straw of pea plants, against the full dose of NPK or individual treatments of compost tea or humic substances. Furthermore, a half dose of NPK in combined addition of 50% of humic substances and compost tea yielded the highest seed and straw yield as well as total protein percent in seeds. It could be concluded that the combination treatment between compost tea and humic substances with half quantity of NPK fertilizer which contributes to lowing pollution of NPK fertilizers, and decreased the costs by using friendly organic and bioorganic fertilizer with the environment, and to compensate NPK fertilizer for Peas Plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 455-467 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.36

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Effect of foliar application with some treatments on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, L.) tolerance to high temperature stress

El-Shoura A.M.

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out in a private farm at Boqtares Village, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt during the seasons of 2017 and 2018 on summer squash under open field conditions. The main objective was to study the effect of foliar application with some treatments i.e., vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium silicate, salicylic acid, glycine betaine, urea, calcium nitrate, boric acid, zn chelate and control (water spray) on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, L. cv. Eskandarani) tolerance to high temperature stress. Generally, the foliar application of glycine betaine at 75 ppm resulted in vigor squash plant as expressed by vegetative growth parameters i.e., plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, plant fresh weight and plant dry weight compared with other foliar treatments. Moreover, the highest values of fruit yield and quality components, i.e., fruit length, fruit diameter, average fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant and per feddan were recorded with potassium silicate application at 100 ppm followed by vitamin C at 100 ppm and vitamin E at 100 ppm treatments. Also, potassium silicate recorded the highest values of TSS % in squash fruits and total chlorophyll in leaves compared with other treatments. The highest percentage of N, P and K were recorded with glycine betaine and potassium silicate (K2SiO3). The obtained results indicated, generally, that foliar applications of glycine betaine at 75 ppm and potassium silicate at 100 ppm to squash plants might be considered as an optimal treatment for the production of high vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of squash under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate and other similar regions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 468-478 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.37

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The Residual Allelopathic Effects of two Brassicaceae Seed Powder on the Following Summer Plants and Associated Weeds

Ahmed S.A.A., N.K. Messiha, M.A.T. El-Dabaa and R. R. El-Masry

ABSTRACT: In Egypt, faba bean can be followed by summer crops such as sesame or soybean to increase the Egyptian crops area per year. So, this work was designed to study the residual effect of different rates from watercress, or mustard seed powder and Basamid herbicide which were previously applied to faba bean pots on the following plants. Sesame and soybean plants were sown in the same pots after the harvest of faba bean plants which were treated with different rates from watercress, or mustard seed powder and Basamid herbicide. This study was carried out in two successive summer seasons of 2016 and 2017 at the greenhouse of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Results indicated that all previous treatments minimized fresh and dry weight of weeds and significantly increased growth parameters, yield and yield components for both plants. Also, results indicated that all tested treatments had no toxic effects on the following two plants. Therefore, more attention must be paid for the possibility of using the vegetative parts of the two mentioned plants as a cover crop on weed dynamics in subsequent cultivation. Moreover, weed control should begin in the previous crop by weed monitoring, control and management

[ FULL TEXT PDF 479-490 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.2.38

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