Jan-March, 2021


Heavy Metals in Edible Fruits: A Review

Igwe P.U., and Ezekwesili J.O

ABSTRACT: Heavy metals are among the major contaminants of edible fruits and pose a potential health risk to both humans and animals. This paper, therefore, reviewed existing literature on the impact of heavy metals on edible fruits. The method used is a review of academic journal/articles, conference papers, internet materials, textbooks and publicly available materials on some heavy metals in edible fruits. The results of this study indicated that previous authors whose works were reviewed have a convergent view that food safety and security, and human health are inextricably linked and that polluted water, and bad practice in post harvesting handling of the fruit products with disregard to the food safety guidelines, and the physical market environments in these locations surrounded by a heavy urban pollution deposition exacerbate contamination levels of fruit samples and also that crops grown in polluted and degraded environmental conditions in the peri-urban (or urban fringe) zone are subjected to further pollution from vehicles and industries during marketing. Recommendations of this study include: (1) the public should be enlightened on the need for fruits to be properly washed before consumption; (2) government and other responsible food agencies should conduct a yearly monitoring program for heavy metals in foodstuffs in order to prevent their contamination and ensure human safety; and (3) food vendors should be educated on the need to properly cover their goods to avoid being contaminated.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-14 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.1.1


Cultivation and Production of Pleurotus Mushroom on Non-Traditional Growing Media

Ibrahim M. Gomaa, Mahmoud I. Y. and Afifi M. M. I.

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to evaluation different substrate as growing media for two different species of pleurotus (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosu) on growth and yield of spawn and their contents from elements. Three substrates mixed with agar were used potato dextrose agar, vermicompost tea agar and compost tea agar for spawn production. The same substrates without agar (broth) in addition to, wheat seeds were used as control media for propagation of spawn on rice straw as traditional media for mushroom production. The results indicated that various substrate formulas gave significant differences in weight of spawn, growth speed rate, total yield on rice straw and its content of nourishes. Vermicompost tea as growing media was more efficient in spawn weights than other growing media with the both types of pleurotus. The highest yield w a s
o b t a i n e d when its spawn grown on rice straw ( 9.95 and 7.5 Kg) with both Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus respectively. Total carbohydrates and energy were very high when Pleurotus ostreatus has grown on wheat seed (55.3 and 312.9 kcal/100 g respectively). Percentages of total protein, fat and ash were also high when it has grown on vermicompost tea (27.3, 2.3 and 6.8 5 respectively).Vermicompost tea achieved the greatest productivity and biological efficiency (156.25) and Pleurotus ostreatushas higher total yield and biological efficiency than Pleurotus cystidiosus.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 15-24 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.1.2