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Jan-March, 2020


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Air Pollution Effects on Vegetative Growth, Fruit Quality and Mineral Composition of Washington Navel Orange

Hala M. El-Khayat and Gehan R. Zaki

ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted during 2017 and 2018 seasons to investigate the effect of air pollution on vegetative growth, fruit quality and mineral composition of seventeen years old Washington navel orange (Citrus sinensis) budded on sour orange and growing in a private orchard located at El-Tarh, Behera governorate, Egypt . Four sites (250, 500, 750, 1000m) apart from Abou Keer Electricity company and a control site in Zahara Kafr ELdoar at a distance more than 35 km were selected . The data for air analysis indicated that control site gave the lowest NO2, O3, TSP (Total suspended particles), Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr whereas site one gave the highest values. Also, results showed that plants in control site gave significantly higher canopy, height and trunk increment, Leaf area, vitamin C, total soluble solid, acidity, juice Volume, reduced sugar, non reduced sugar, total sugar, fruit diameter and fruit number, fruit and leaf nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, leaf total chlorophyll and protein content and the lowest heavy metals content (chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead) in leaf and fruit than other sites. As well as these parameters increased by increasing the distance from the pollutant source whereas heavy metals decreased. Fore thus, it can be recommended to avoid adhesive plantings less than 0–1000 m distances from the pollutant source due to heavy metals contamination in order in order to preserve both agriculture and environment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-13 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.1.1

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Genetic Diversity of Egyptian Barley Cultivars for Water Stress using SSR Markers

Samah A. Mariey, Mona A.M. El-Mansoury, Amin M.E Agwa and Mary E. Nashed

ABSTRACT: Abiotic stresses in particular water stress which was considered important stress that affecting all crops in all the world and Egypt. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the performance of 15 Egyptian barley cultivars and find out the genetic diversity of these cultivars for water stress tolerance using simple sequence repeats (SSR) during two consecutive seasons to detect their tolerance to water stress. Results revealed that the Egyptian barley Giza 126, Giza 131 and Giza 2000 were considered as tolerant cultivars, which they exhibited the highest mean values for all studied morphological and physiological traits. Twenty alleles were produced as a result of fingerprinting ten SSR primers ranging from one to four alleles per locus with a mean value of 2.0 alleles per locus .The PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) value of each SSR marker ranged from 0.23 ( HvM67) to 0.58 (EBmac 624) with an average value of 0.227. Un-weighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the similarity data grouped all the fifteen studied Egyptian cultivars into two major groups divided according to their response to water stress tolerance; first group include all the water stress tolerant cultivars and moderately tolerant in two closely related clusters, while all the sensitive genotypes and moderate cultivars in the other group were closely related in two clusters. These results proposed that SSR markers are professional and detective tool for assessment of genetic diversity and relatedness as well as distinguishing the Egyptian barley cultivars for water stress tolerance to use them in breeding program.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-25 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.1.2

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Biochemical Evaluation and Maturity Criteria during Fish Waste and Olive Mill Mixed Composting

Mohamed Afifi and Ahmed Mohy Eldin

ABSTRACT: This study introduced two unusual local wastes including fish wastes and olive mill into traditional compost structure of rice straw and cattle dung in permutations and combinations to form three types of heaps (A), (B) and (C). The composting process was investigated following up variable parameters in correlation to enzymatic activities in each heap which was of great feasibility to evaluate heap state. C/N ratio, organic matter content and humification parameters were investigated, while the influence of coinciding weathering conditions on temperature and humidity in heaps were evaluated. In their mature state, heavy metal ion concentrations were way down than many worldwide standards and those embedding fish wastes were found to be richer in phosphorous, potassium and zinc, with higher cation exchange capacity. Their germination indices exceeded 70%, while they were all free from parasite, nematodes, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, pathogenic Salmonella and Shigella. They were all compliant to good compost humification parameters, where compost (B) recorded the least humification index % and humification rate % while gave the highest humification degree %. Gathering fish waste with equal amounts of olive mill and rice straw in heap (B) made it the best combination constructed for compost production with the highest organic matter %, Nitrogen %, Humification degree % and germination index among other composts

[ FULL TEXT PDF 26-49 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.1.3

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An Assessment of Rural Solid Waste Management System in Aguata Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

Igwe P.U. and Evan E.

ABSTRACT: Wastes are inevitable products of human activities in both cities and rural settings across the globe. Solid waste management is increasingly becoming a problem in rural settings of developing democracies. This paper has been done to assess rural solid waste management system in Aguata Local Government Area Anambra State Nigeria. The research methods are quantitative approach using structured questionnaire to collect data from respondents and setting of traps to collect vectors of diseases and rodents at dumpsites in rural communities of the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 6 towns out of the 14 towns of the study area, zoned into: north, central and south. A simple random technique was made use of in choosing 3 villages from each of the 6 towns, translating into 18 villages that were sampled. Then 10 respondents were sampled from each of the 18 villages giving a total of 180 respondents from households selected through a systematic sampling technique. Product Moment Pearson Correlation Coefficient statistical analysis was used which showed that there was a positive correlation between the improper rural solid waste management system and public health in a relationship: r = 0.842, p < 0.05 (5%), with the significance level = 0.035. Poor handling of rural solid wastes constitutes both environmental and health risks in Aguata Local Government Area. Government, individuals, and community-based organizations should see waste management as a collective enterprise to avert imminent epidemics.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 50-59 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.1.4

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