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April-June, 2020

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Hydrogeochemical Study for sustainable development in Wadi El-Mathula, East Qift city, Eastern Desert, Egypt

Saad A. Mohallel

ABSTRACT: Wadi El-Mathula is one of the promising basins in Upper Egypt. Rain fall, River Nile and return irrigation water represent the main recharging sources for groundwater aquifers in particular Quaternary water bearing. The hydrogeological data of the main aquifers, namely Quaternary and Nubian sandstone water bearing formations were discussed. The Quaternary aquifer occupying delta of Wadi El-Mathula, where it represented by 18 samples has a salinity ranges from fresh (6% of samples) to brackish water (55%) then saline water (39%) showing an increase due east towards the new reclaimed and desert lands, where the values vary from 1320 mg/l to 10622 mg/l with mean value 5381 mg/l. In the Nubian sandstone aquifer (represented by 6 samples) all the groundwater samples are brackish water where the salinity ranges from 1836 to 2682 mg/l with a mean value of 2072 mg/l. Chloride – Sodium water type is considered the main water type where it characterized the majority (67%) of the Quaternary groundwater samples and the majority of Nubian groundwater samples (83%). Calcite and Dolomite dissolution beside the dissolution of halite are the main hydrochemical processes affecting groundwater quality. The chemical types and hypothetical salts as well as the ion ratios indicate meteoric origin for groundwater and dissolution of terrestrial salts. Hydrogeochemical model (PHREEQC 2.8) was used to calculate saturation indices of minerals to the Quaternary and the Nubian sandstone aquifers. The results indicated that the groundwater in the two aquifers is undersaturated with respect to Gypsum and Anhydrite indicating the capacity of groundwater for more mineral dissolution. All samples of the Nubian sandstone and the most samples of the Quaternary groundwater are supersaturated with reference to Calcite, Aragonite and Dolomite. The results of the environmental stable isotopes indicated that the groundwater in study area is discriminated into two distinctive groups. Group (I) belonging to the deep flowing well in Laqita area (Nubian aquifer) and group (II) of samples is enriched in their isotopic compositions (Quaternary aquifer). The investigated groundwater is not suitable for drinking purposes. Only 28% of the Quaternary groundwater samples are considered very satisfactory for all classes of livestock and poultry. On the other hand, all the groundwater samples of the Nubian sandstone aquifer are considered very satisfactory for all classes of livestock and poultry. About 5% of the Quaternary groundwater samples are Intermediate quality for irrigation. In addition the majority of the Nubian sandstone groundwater samples (67%) are moderate water quality for irrigation and 17% of the groundwater samples in the same aquifer are Intermediate quality

[ FULL TEXT PDF 60-82 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.2.5

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Enhancing the productivity of potato crop under drought stress by using some biological treatments

Mostafa M.A.A. Zahran, Mohamed Hefzy and Hassan H.A. Mostafa

ABSTRACT: The objectives of current investigation were to investigate the effect of various microbial treatments on the growth and productivity of potato, and nutrient uptake under different irrigation regimes and to study the influence of bacteria to alleviate the negative impact of water deficit irrigation. Therefore, the present study was conducted as a factorial experiment, which the main plot was assigned to various irrigation regimes (100% of crop evapotranspiration ETc, 80% ETc and 60% ETc) and sub-plots were assigned to microbial treatments (control = ck, Azotobacter chroococcum + Azospirillum brasilense =AZ, Bacillus megaterium = BM, Bacillus circulans = BC and combined AZ+BM+BC = Mix). The main results revealed that the actual amount of water applied was varied according to irrigation regime level and potato growth stage. Increase of water deficit irrigation resulted in a significant decrease in plant height, yield and yield components, dry tubers yield, starch and protein yield, and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, however, increased irrigation water use efficiency and economic productivity of irrigation water. Microbial inoculation enhanced all the above studied parameters under various irrigation regimes compared to non-inoculated treatment (control). For the interaction effect, with 20% water-saving a irrigation regime 80% ETc, combined microbial treatment the average reduction in both season for tuber weight per plant, marketable yield and tubers total yield were 7.56%, 7.75% and 7.56% compared to 100% ETc, respectively. However, compared to control at 100% ETc, Mix treatment increased the total yield in both seasons by 19.26%. Moreover, protein and starch yield, dry tubers yield and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake were higher when potato plants irrigated with 100% ETc and inoculated with combined microbial treatment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 83-103 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.2.6

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Seasonal impact on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. grown in Sidi Barrani Desert, Egypt

Taghried M. El-Lamey

ABSTRACT: Seasonal variations have a significant effect on plant metabolites. The aim of this work was to study the effect of seasonal variations on the yield of antioxidant compounds and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes in Ajuga iva plants collected from Sidi Barrani Desert, Egypt. The aqueous extract of leaves and flowers samples were analyzed for total phenolic and flavonids content and antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). The extracts of summer samples displayed the highest contents of total phenol (82.61±0.81 mg GAE/g FW) and total flavonoids (16.3±0.39 mg QE)/g FW), and the greatest DPPH radical scavenging potency with an IC50 value of (2.47±0.04 mg/ml). There was a high significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenols (DPPH, r=0.931; FRAP, r=0.958) and total flavonoids (DPPH, r=0.933; FRAP, r=0.956) were observed. The activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and catalase were significantly affected by stress conditions and increased to 5.19±0.15 (μmol catechol min–1 g FW–1) and 166±3.09 (μmol H2O2 decomposed min-1 g-1 FW) in summer, respectively. The production of these compounds can be correlated to the changes in the rate of rainfall, climatic temperature and the duration of sunlight .Thus, seasonal variations in climatic factors should be taken into consideration when harvesting the plant to isolate antioxidant constituents or to use the crude extracts. As it is possible, based on the results, to predict and hypothesize the chemical features of Ajuga in rationale with changes in climatic factors.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 104-116 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.2.7

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Geological Characteristics of Shallow Groundwater Aquifer and its Relation to Hydrochemical Features and Bacteriological Pollutants in Siwa Oasis, Egypt

Amr M. Abdel-Gawad, El Sayed A. El Abd and Yahia R. Gedamy

ABSTRACT: This study aims to delineate the geological characteristics of the shallow groundwater aquifer and assess its relation to the hydrochemical features and bacteriological pollutants to understand the nature and degree of occurrence of contamination in Siwa Oasis, Egypt. To achieve this aim, thirty seven water samples (lakes, drains and springs water samples as well as Miocene and Nubian sandstone groundwater samples) were collected from the study area and analyzed for several parameters in order to determine the major constituents (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3 2-, HCO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl- and SiO2) and minor constituents (PO4 3- and NO3 -) as well as some trace elements (Fe, Mn and Zn). Also, the bacteriological parameters as total coliform counts (M.P.N/100ml), total colony counts × 102 (S.P.C/ml at 37˚C) and Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) were defined for selected twenty nine water samples which are uniformly distributed across the study area. The obtained data were then analyzed by statistical approach, in order to determine the origin of the contamination. The obtained results showed that, 89% of the Miocene groundwater samples are brackish water while the rest of the samples (11%) are fresh water. Both the hypothetical salts combinations and Piper trilinear diagram indicate that there are great similarities of the hydrochemical composition between the drains and springs water as well as the Miocene groundwater which may reflect the same geochemical environment where the water is discharged. All selected drains and springs water samples as well as the majority of the Miocene (64%) and 50% of Nubian sandstone groundwater samples are often bacteriologically contaminated by total faecal coliform (Escherichia coli). There is a connection between the drain and springs water as well as the Miocene groundwater. The groundwater in the study area is unsuitable for drinking purposes under the ordinary conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 117-147 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.2.8

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