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Oct-Dec, 2020

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Preparation and Evaluation of Edible Films from Broken Rice Enrichment with Rice Straw Components for Maximizing the Benefit of Each other

Sanaa R.A. Rohaim

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to utilize of rice by-products by attempting produce a high value-added compounds. In the present work, cellulose was successfully isolated from rice straw and was chemically converted to hydroxyl propyl cellulose (HPC). At the same time, starch (s) was extracted from broken rice, then incorporated them into an edible film matrix by different ratios S/HPC: 4:1, 3.5:1.5, 3:2 and 2.5:2.5 and evaluate its properties physically, mechanically and microbiologically, afterwards these films used practically for coating different samples from apple slices, strawberry fruits and potato scrips to extend its shelf-life when stored at 4oC. Samples quality was evaluated by measuring weight loss, visible decay, microbiological quality and sensory evaluation. Also a varied concentration 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% of rosemary extract were studied as antimicrobial agent after adding in the formula of S/HPC edible film structure. Firstly, about S/HPC characterization, results revealed that, the presence of high HPC contents up to 40% (C-treated) had an excellent effect on the mechanical properties of S/HPC membrane which increased the percentage elongation at break (%E) and enhance the lightness, while decreased somewhat the tensile strength (TS) and WVP rate
proportionally to the HPC content in the blend. No significant difference was exhibited among films containing 50% HPC in the blend. A maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli (7.0 cm), S. aureus (10.0 cm) and B. subtilis (11.0 cm) were obtained with C-treated films incorporated with 2.0% rosemary extract. Secondly, about coated samples, results revealed that C-treated had a significant effect on reducing the weight loss and percentage of infected samples during the storage period if compared with uncoated samples. Moreover, C-treated with 2.0% rosemary extract exhibited clear antimicrobial activity against TMAB, Coliforms, E-coli 0157:H7, S.aureus and Yeasts & Molds in all samples during the storage period. Regarding, sensory evaluation, more acceptance was observed up to 28 days storage at 4oC for coated apple & potato and up to 21 days for strawberry fruits. With more recently studies to provide and economically boost from rice by-products and maximizing the benefit of it, which represent 50% of the harvest, this study can added the ability for production of active food packaging with good characterization beside a little cost and permit finding economically boost for production nations.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 547-556 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.48

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Behavioral impairment in Egyptian children with cerebellar malformations: A logic model based on behavioral assessment

Ehab Mohamed Eid, Yasser Nassef, Ahmed Fathy, Walaa Hany Ali, Hasnaa M. Elbendary, Rasha Tolba Khattab and Wafaa Osman Ahmed

ABSTRACT: Background: The complex development of the cerebellum together with the high number of involved genes and the long embryonic development of the cerebellum make the cerebellum vulnerable to a broad spectrum of malformations and disruption. Neuroimaging represents a key in the diagnosis of posterior fossa malformations. Aim: Our scope was to determine to what extent cerebellar malformations affect behavior of children with cerebellar malformations and quality of life. Methods: a cross sectional explorative study enrolled a total of 60 patients with cerebellar abnormalities that were classified into five groups according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding. Patients were underwent full history, clinical examination, followed by behavioral and quality of life assessment using child behavior checklist (CBCL) and quality of life short form questionnaire respectively. Results: Our finding highlighted that children with cerebellar malformations experience high prevalence of behavioral abnormality as well as a poor quality of life due to functional disabilities, except patients with Dandy Walker malformation (DWM); they showed favorable neurodevelopmental outcome but this didn't prevent them from experiencing a lower quality of life. Conclusion: cerebellar malformation is heavily connected to behavioral impairment. Recommendation: Significance and impact of study: Cerebellar malformations are lifelong devastating conditions, MRI and other new radiologic modalities facilitated their diagnosis, so there is an utmost need for implementing routine social behavioral for assessment of those children for better future rehabilitation and better quality of life.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 557-564 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.49

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Xanthan Gum Production by Xanthomans compestris ATCC 13951 as a Food Thickening Agent

Nagwa M. Sidkey, Hemmat M. Abdelhady, Gihan F. Galal and Aya S. Abdel Aliem

ABSTRACT: Biological activity of Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 was studied using shake flasks a batch culture. Garcia-Ochoa et al. (1992) medium was selected, from three media, as best medium for maximum bacterial growth and xanthan production after 120 hrs of fermentation period. This medium containing 2% sucrose recorded culture viscosity, xanthan dry weight concentration and xanthan productivity increased 1.97, 1.07 and 1.06 fold than that containing 2% glucose, respectively. On all tested nitrogen source media, Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 grow exponentially during the first 12 hrs and recorded the highest culture viscosity at the end of fermentation period (120 hrs) on yeast extract medium followed by peptone and malt extract media being 2600, 2201 and 2080 cp, respectively. The same value of xanthan specific production rate (0.28 h-1) was attained in yeast extract, peptone and NH4NO3 media after 48 hrs of fermentation period. Significant factors affecting xanthan production were investigated using Placket-Burman Design. Based on the obtained results sucrose, yeast extract and temperature were assumed as significant factors. Xanthan concentration was optimized using Response Surface Methodology with three independent variables. The highest xanthan production concentration after 120 hrs under optimized condition was 16.35 gl01. The produced xanthan can be used in manufacture of food such as fig jam and mango juice drink with improving its quality up to level of and respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 565-582 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.50

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Quality Aspects for High Nutritional Value Pretzel

Sahar S. El-Gohery

The present study was carried out to improve the nutritional value of pretzels made from wheat or barely flour by adding chickpea or sweet lupine powder at different percent of replacement. Chemical composition of raw materials indicated that sweet lupine and chickpea powder contained higher amounts of protein, fat and crude fiber (28.45, 26.05% & 7.53, 8.08% & 7.57, 4.86%, respectively) compared with wheat and barley flour. Wheat and barley pretzels replaced by 40 % chickpea powder or 20 % sweet lupine powder indicated significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvement in different sensory characteristics. Control barley pretzel had higher total essential amino acids content (41.86 g/100 gm protein), followed by barley pretzel replaced by 20% sweet lupine powder (41.25 g/100 gm protein). The protein quality indicated increase of biological value (BV) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) for pretzel replaced wheat or barley flour by chickpea or sweet lupine powder. All pretzel samples replaced wheat or barley flour by chickpea or sweet lupine powder had higher content of minerals than control samples. Barley pretzel samples had higher content of magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron and zinc compared with wheat pretzel samples. Wheat and barley pretzel samples replaced by chickpea or sweet lupine caused an increase of total phenolic and total flavonoids contents. Antioxidant activity (DPPH%) showed that barley pretzels had the highest antioxidant activity, while wheat pretzels showed the lowest activity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 583-593 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.51

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