www.curresweb.com
 


Oct-Dec, 2019

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Growth of Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) Plant as Affected by NPK Formula and rate

Elboraie E.A.H. and M. M. Kasem

ABSTRACT: The current study was achieved to evaluate the influence of different NPK formulas at (20:20:20, 20:10:5 and 16:6:5), NPK rates at (2, 4 and 6 g/pot) and their interactions on vegetative growth and chemical compositions of golden photos (Epipremnum aureum). Two field experiments in a plastic greenhouse were conducted at the Nursery of Vegetables and Floriculture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Egypt, during the two consecutive seasons of 2018 and 2019. The experiment was designed as a factorial in randomized complete block design, since the NPK formulas was the first factor and the NPK rates was the second factor. The obtained results cleared the importance of NPK formulas and rates on improving golden photos growth. Golden photos plants treated with NPK fertilizer formula of 16:6:5 at 4 g/pot gained significant increases in vegetative
growth (vine length, vines number, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weight), pigments content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) and leaves macronutrients contents (N, P and K%). In general, these results may decrease the total NPK fertilization which needed for commercial production of this important foliage indoor plant through decreasing the NPK formula from 20:20:20 to 16:6:5 although increasing the NPK concentrations. Generally, from the previous results can reduce the use of compound fertilizers, especially nitrogen and phosphorus through the use of the least fertilizer equation content (16: 6: 5) and the use of fertilizer dose 4 g where there is no significant differences with the dose of 6 g so we recommend the use of 4 g /pot every three weeks where they reduce the economic cost.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 604-611 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.1

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Association between ABO Blood/ Rhesus Grouping and Hepatitis C virus in Egyptian patients

Hussam K.M. Sahow, Samir H. Abdel Aziz, Sabah A. Abo Maaty, Sohair Abdel Rahman and El Dougdoug K. A.

ABSTRACT: The relationship between hepatitis C virus and the host ABO/Rh blood groups appropriately designed study in Egypt. This current study aimed to investigate possible association between ABO blood /Rh groups with HCV infection. In this study, 20 healthy individuals (controls), 90 patients showed like Hepatitis-C symptoms were recruited from June 2018 to March 2019 provided clinical labs in Egypt. The HCV patients groups were matched for their subjects, region, age and sex. In the HC group, there were 75 Rh+ positive (83.3%) and 15 Rh- negative (16.6%) patients. The corresponding figures were (A) 16/23 (69.7%), (B) 17/25 (68 %), (O) 8/20 (40 %) and (AB) 17/22 (54.5 %) for the HCV patients out of AB blood groups. Comparing between the control and HC groups showed no significant difference in terms of the frequency of ABO blood groups (p = 0.70). The HCV patients appeared Severe symptoms thus as, Fever, Joint pain, Weight loss, Liver cell failure and mild symptoms thus as, (Nausea, Vomiting and Abdominal pain. HCV Positive clinical blood 73 out of 90 with rate 81.1% by ELISA. Statistical significant differences were recorded between HCV and blood groups, A, B, O and AB regarding sex. In addition there was highly statistical significant decrease in female than male cases regarding medical history. While nonsignificant differences between ABO blood groups of HCV patient regarding CB Cresults, Biochemical Liver tests and Kidney function, (creatinine and Urea). RT-qPCR of blood viral load showed that the higher percentage of HCV infection was among f blood group B (54.90%) and the lower percentage was among those of blood group O (9.90%) with significant difference (p<0.05) .This association is significant between certain ABO blood groups and HCV.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 612-622 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.2

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The use of miniature parks as a museum for Egyptian architectural heritage

Nermin Mokhtar Farrag, Ayman Hesham Elalfy

ABSTRACT: Miniature heritage parks are considered a good chance for people to be aware of their countries architectural heritage. It might be hard for every person to visit most of a country’s monumental places. Egypt is a country that has various historical places and a lot of monuments located in different natural and cultural environments. Egypt had passed various historical periods including
pharaonic, Coptic and Islamic. Miniature heritage parks contain a blend of small scale architectural models and sculpture art models that compose a good knowledge environment that enhance its visitors to know about their heritage. Although Egypt has a very rich heritage environment. Yet there are few opened miniature heritage parks. Nowadays there is a great demand to enhance the design and construction of such parks with the guidance of the foreign miniature heritage parks found in China, Holland and the United States of America. The research goal is to enhance the architectural design process for heritage mini parks in Egypt through a comparative study for of some foreign park examples displaying Egyptian monumental models and two miniature heritage parks existing in Egypt reaching architectural design criteria that should be considered during the design process.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 623-639 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.3

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of resistant and persistent diabetic macular edema

Hazem Azab M.D., Maged Adly Naguib M.D.

ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in diabetic macular edema, refractory cases. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of forty eyes diagnosed clinically and supported with optical coherence tomography with diabetic macular edema were than 300 m in thickness. All eyes were injected with a single injection preservative free triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg /0.1 ml). Patients were subjected to visual acuity and optical coherence tomography on each follow up visit which was continued for mean eight months. Results: The mean central subfield thickness at baseline was 504 m, at five weeks. The mean central subfield thickness dropped by about 195 m and baseline visual acuity 0.8 log MAR unit was improved by 0.02 log MAR unit from baseline that were recorded in 17 (42.5%) eyes, 11 (27.5%) eyes improved in central subfield thickness without improved vision, 5 (12.5%) eyes more worse than before injection and lastly 7 (17.5%) eyes without changes in central subfield thickness or visual acuity. Conclusion: triamcinolone acetonide is safe, effective and promising therapy in resistant and persistent diabetic macular edema.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 640-646 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.4

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The impact of flaxseed oil active compounds in its native and nano forms on the rat gut microbiota

Sherif S. Mohamed, Abdel-Hameed M. Fayed, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz and Ahmed S. Montser

ABSTRACT: The beneficial effects of the gastrointestinal microbiota and mankind health take multitude interest in the recent researcher studies. According a lot of studies proven that flax seeds contain bioactive materials such as precursors of omega-3 and omega 6,polysaccharides, cyclic peptides, lignin, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, and cadmium. Lignin that is usually exists in content within flaxseed oil required intestinal bacteria to be metabolized in order to absorption through intestinal mucosa to the systemic circulation in humans. This study concentrated on the impact of either flaxseed oil or its nanoemulsionas prophylaxis the growth of total account of microbiota in rat’s colon. The male adult albino rats (Western) strain, weighting 120±30 gm. Were divided into four groups: Group I:rats that received saline (serve as normal control), Group II: rats that received 1ml flax seed oil (as reference), Group III: rats were received 1ml flax seed oil nanoparticles and Group IV: rats that received 2ml flax seed oil nanoparticles. The results determined that the lowest total bacterial counts (CFU/ml) was found with rats treated with 1ml of oil nanoemulsion whereas the highest total bacterial count was found with rats treated with 2ml oil nanoemulsion. It was worthy that findings confirmed the consumption of flaxseed oil nanoemulsion amounted to 2ml was the highest total bacteria than natural form. It may be regarded to the nanoemulsion was a better gastro-intestinal absorption of the precursor omega-3 fatty acids resulted to the nanoparticles size and enrichment the colon micobiota by others phytochemical bioactivities as well as lignin.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 647-654 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.5

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Antioxidative and Hypoglycemic Effects of Delonix elata and Vachellia farnesiana Leaves Extracts on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

Sameera A. Alghamdi

ABSTRACT: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to be a group of metabolic disorders characterized by an elevated glucose level. Plants are the most promising causes of new therapeutic agents. The usual usage of plant products for the managing of DM has grown up because of the nominal side-effects with the minimal economy as controlling of diabetes without the side-effects is a challenge. The drugs prepared from the plants may play a major role in the treatment. This study aims to inspect the hypoglycemic with antioxidant potentiality of leaves extract from Delonix elata (DELE) and Vachellia farnesiana (VFLE) in streptozotocin (STZ) male rats with DM. This study incorporates 80 Wistar male rats categorized into eight groups. Normal control rats were appeared in groupr1. Untreated DM rats termed as DM controls as in group 2. Groups 3-5 involve the DELE, VFLE and DELE plus VFLE as DM rats. Groups 6-8 were treated as normal rats with DELE, VFLE and DELE plus VFLE respectively. The DM control group inhibited decrease in body weight and increased in the serum levels of glucose, HbA1c, protein and lipid profiles, creatinine, BUN. ALT, AST and MDA, whereas, serum insulin, GPx and CAT levels were reduced. In Gr3-5 of DM rats, extracts disclosed clear influence at body weight, glucose, HbA1c, protein and lipid profiles, liver and kidney functions parameter, and oxidative stress markers. The results revealed the extracts exhibited significant anti-oxidant and hypoglycemic activity which could be the appearance of pharmacologically active ingredients. However, these extracts can be applied alternatively in dealing DM and allied complications. In conclusion, the novel of these plant extracts further should be investigated to reconfirm for predicting their clinical potential as a phytomedicine for DM treatment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 655-666 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.6

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Deficit Irrigation Management in Arid Regions by Adding Biochar to Sandy Soils: Sweet Pepper Cultivation

El-Shawadfy M. A. and Abdelraouf R. E.

ABSTRACT: Promoting the rationalization of water consumption and the growth of plants under deficit of irrigation water are major concerns in arid and semi-arid areas. It is necessary to use safe and environmentally friendly methods and treatments for this purpose to overcome water shortage problems with special emphasis on sustainable resource management and environmental protection. Two field experiments were carried out during growing seasons 2017 and 2018 to study the effect of adding biochar on application efficiency of irrigation water, yield of sweet pepper (YSP) , water productivity (WP) and vitamin C of sweet pepper under irrigation scheduling based on deficit irrigation conditions. Three application rates of biochar [0 (control) ,3.5, 7 and 10.5 ton ha.-1] were used under three levels from irrigation water treatments [100% Full Irrigation, (FI) , {75% of FI and 50% of FI (deficit irrigation)} from irrigation requirements for sweet pepper ]. The results revealed that increasing the application of biochar materials under deficit irrigation conditions had a positive impact o YSP, WP and vitamin C of sweet pepper. The most effective level in this regard when plant were irrigated with FI and adding 10.5 ton ha-1of bioshar as well as when plant were irrigated with 75 % FI and adding 10.5 ton ha-1of bioshar in both seasons of 2017 and 2018 respectively. A similar direction was observed with vitamin C content of sweet pepper compared with control treatments and irrigation with 50 % of FI without adding biochar. In addition, water productivity parameter were significantly improved by application of adding biochar under irrigation treatments. The potential function of biochar on soil and yield under deficit of irrigation water for sweet pepper plants was discussed.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 667-677 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.7

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

New Technologies in Improving Chemical Properties and Sensory Attributes of Olive Oil

Susan M. M. Abd-Elmageed, Rania I. M. Almoselhy and Badawy H. A. A.

ABSTRACT: This work aimed to improve the quality of lampante virgin olive oil (LVOO) (olive oil with severe defects greater than 6.0 or free acidity greater than 3.3%). It is not fit for human consumption. LVOO may come from bad fruit from improper handling. Lampante virgin olive oil (LVOO) was mixed with good olive oil cake (OOC) (olive pomace) and good olive mill wastewater (OMWW) by ratio 20: 30: 50. This mixture was transported to malaxer unit, for malaxing at 30, 45, and 60 min. After each malaxation time the paste was sent to the decanter to re-extract the oil. In decanter unit paste was divided into three phases, after decantation the husk that was given out from the machine was transported to the outside of the mill. For recovering the oil, the machine used the centrifugal force (separator), oil and OMWW were transported to separator unit for separation oil from water. During the re-extraction of olive oil with malaxation time 30, 45, and 60 min, changes in chemical properties and sensory attributes were studied. Results indicated that sensory attributes were improved at three malaxation time 30, 45, and 60 min, mainly fruitiness and bitterness, the high malaxing time 60 min was the best. Also results revealed that chemical properties were improved at three malaxation time, mainly free acidity and peroxide value which were decreased, and high malaxation time was the best, olive oil obtained by this techniques may classified as ordinary olive oil (free acidity less than 3.3% and defect less than 6.0. These results suggested the use of these techniques to improve the quality of LVOO.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 678-686 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.8

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Potential Protective Effect of Sesame Oil and Canola Oil on Rats Exposed to Malathion

Daklallah A. Almalki

ABSTRACT: Currently, the environmental pollution is occurring on a vast and unprecedented scale around the globe. Pesticides are the largest group of chemicals that are used widely in modern agricultural practices. Pesticides have been associated with health and environmental issues, and the agricultural use of certain pesticides has been abandoned. Pesticides are basically poisons and therefore toxic to living organism at particular dose. Medicinal plants have a promising future because there are about half million plants around the world, and most of them their medical activities have not investigate yet, and their medical activities could be decisive in the treatment of present or future studies. Natural products from plants, animals and minerals are the basis for treating human diseases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sesame oil and canola oil on male rats exposed to malathion. Experimental rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 was served as normal control. Rats of group 2 were exposed to malathion. Rats of group 3 were treated with sesame oil and malathion. Rats of group 4 were subjected to canola oil and malathion. Rats of group 5 and 6 were supplemented with sesame oil and canola oil respectively. After the end of experimental duration (8 weeks), rats of group 2 showed significant reduction of body weight gain, and severe hematological and biochemical alterations including significant decreases of RBC, HB, Hct, WBC, total protein, glucose and CAT, and increases of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid and MDA values. Administration of sesame oil and canola oil improved the observed hematological and biochemical alterations induced by malathion intoxication. These new findings indicate that sesame oil and canola oil represent protective roles on hematological and biochemical disturbances induced by malathion toxicity due to their antioxidant activities.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 687-698 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.9

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Analytical Determination of Cefepime Residues in Rabbit’ Muscles, Liver and Kidney Using HPLC

Farida El-Dars, Nahla S. Elshater and Safaa M. Abd Elaziz

ABSTRACT: In this study, residues of cefepime in different rabbit tissues (liver, kidney, thigh muscle and pectoral muscle) were analytically determined after intramuscular administrations. A total of 24 healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups. The first group (n=3) remained untreated for use as control, while the second group (n=21) was administered with 75 mg/kg cefepime for five consecutive days. The liver, kidney, thigh muscle and pectoral muscles were collected after the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 14th and 21st day post cefepime hydrochloride administration. Cefepime residues were extracted from the relative tissue and analyzed using HPLC equipped with a UV detector at 256 nm. The results indicated a widespread distribution of cefepime in most of the tested tissues. However, it remained detectable within the liver and kidney till the 7th and 9th day, respectively, after the last administered dose. On the other hand, the drug levels within the thigh and pectoral muscles were not detectable after the 3rd day of administration. Accordingly, it may be concluded that a 9-day period was a safe period to ensure the complete disappearance of cefepime from the examined tissues and to render the animal safe for human consumption.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 699-706 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.10

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Relation between Anthropometric Measurements and Serum Lipid Profile among Postmenopausal Women with Hypertension

Wafaa Mohammad Kamal, Eman Emad Kamel and Hossam El-Din Hossein Kamel

ABSTRACT: Background: Menopause is the time that marks the end of menstrual cycles. Weight gain and obesity is one of its physical symptoms that may disrupt the woman's life. In fact, obesity and metabolic syndrome are three times more frequently found in women during this period of their lives than before menopause. Aim: to verify association between serum lipid concentrations and
anthropometric measures like body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) and which one of these anthropometric variables (BMI or WHR) is a better link to lipid profile among postmenopausal women with hypertension. Subjects: To conduct this study, forty-five postmenopausal women with hypertension were collected from the outpatient clinic of Menouf General Hospital. Their ages ranged from 55-65 years old, their body mass index (BMI) ranged from 30 to 34.9 kg/m2 and their waist/hip ratio ranged from 0.78 to 1. All participants were pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension ranged from 140/90 to 159/99 mmHg as diagnosed by physicians and they weren't received any medication. Methods: data were obtained for all women by measuring BMI, waist/hip ratio and serum level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). Results: WHR had a more powerful relation with serum lipid profile than BMI. So, WHR is a better predictor of TC and LDL among postmenopausal women. Conclusion: WHR and WC had a more powerful relation with serum lipid profile than BMI. So, WHR is considered a better predictor of TC and LDL among postmenopausal women. The implications of these findings underline the importance of WHR as a cardio-metabolic health marker in postmenopausal women, independent of BMI.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 707-710 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.11

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Organic summer squash production using chicken manure, compost and AMF for enhancing soil fertility

Amal K. Abou El-Goud and Mona M. Yousry

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, (Saba-Basha) - Alexandria University, during the growing seasons of 2017 and 2018, in order to study the effect of organic and bio fertilizer such as chicken manure, Compost and AM fungi on yield and quality of summer squash (El-Askandarani sp.). The study was conducted with randomized complete block design with three replicates. Eight treatments were carried out in this investigation i.e. (AM fungi, 100 % compost, 100 % chicken manure, 50 % compost + 50 % chicken manure, 50% compost + AM fungi, 50% chicken manure + AM fungi, 33.5% compost + 33.5% chicken manure + AM fungi and the recommended doses of chemical fertilizers N,P,K as a control ). The effects of the treatments on the growth, yield and plant nutrient elements of leaves and fruits of summer squash were determined. The results indicated that using 50% chicken manure + AM fungi improved significantly vegetative growth characters ( plant height, No. leaves/plant, leaf area index, shoot and root dry weight and nutritional status of plants in leaves and fruits) except 50 % compost + 50 % chicken manure gave the highest values in chlorophyll reading of leaves. Treatments of chicken manure increased significantly all morphological characteristics and qualities of squash. Also, AM fungi additions led to increase mineral content of leaves and fruits compared with control treatment. In our experience, add two types of organic fertilizers to cultivated squash with addition of AM fungi had different effects on the quality and quantity of the yield.The highest values of early and total yield production was achieved by the combination of 33.5% compost + 33.5% chicken manure + AM fungi compared to the control treatment. Also, the use of 100% chicken manure was increased values of the fruit length, fruit diameter and average fruit weight significantly compared to data recorded by the control. This study demonstrated the possibility of producing a good yield of squash safe and healthy without any applying chemical fertilizers via integration of compost, chicken manure and AM fungi as cleanly fertilizers and environmentally friendly practices.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 711-720 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.12

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Efficacy of Phonophoresis with Corticosteroids on Bell's Palsy Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Abd Elhady S. AbuMandour, Gehan M. Ahmed, PhD, Sandra M. ahmed, PhD and Youssef M. Elbalawy

ABSTRACT: Background: Bell’s palsy is an acute, generally unilateral paralysis or weakness of facial musculature consistent with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction, of no detectable cause, Additional symptoms frequently include pain around or behind the ear on the affected side, sometimes extending into the occipital or cervical regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of
phonophoresis with hydrocortisone on patients with acute bell's palsy. Methodology: thirty patients with acute bell'-s palsy both sexes, their ages were ranged from (15-45) years were assigned into three equal groups (group a and b): group (A) This group consists of 15 patients received oral systemic steroids and aplacebo effect of Phonophoresis (sham effect) while group (B) This group consists of 15 patients received the same oral drugs and hydrocortisone Phonophoresis.. Subjects were assessed using Electrodiagnostic testing (nerve conduction velocity). Results: Considering the effect of the tested group (first independent variable) on NCV, "unpaired t test" revealed that the mean values of the "pre" test between both groups showed there was no significant differences (p>0.05). But, the mean values of the "post" test between both groups showed there was significant differences (p<0.05)
and this significant increase in favor of group B in compared to group A. Conclusion: It was suggested that phonophoresis with hydrocortisone is beneficial for patients with acute bell's palsy.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 721-726 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.13

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Influence of soil application and spraying of salicylic acid on improving growth and leaf mineral content of olive seedling grow under saline condition

Laila F.Hagagg, M.I.F. Fawzi, M.F.M., Shahin, A.B. El-Sayed and Eman S. El-Hady

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of exogenously application of salicylic acid (SA) on growth and leaf nutrient content of olive seedlings picual cv. irrigated with saline water grow in shade house. Seedlings subjected during two growth seasons (2016-2017) to salicylic acid (SA) which applied as foliar and soil application at three concentrations (0, 200, and 400 ppm) on olive seedlings cv. Picual grown under three levels of salinity (0, 2000, 4000 ppm). At the end of each growth season different vegetative growth parameters (plant height increment, leaf dry weight, leaves moist percentage, leaves no. and shoots no.) were determined. Moreover, leaf nutrient status were been estimated. Obtained results indicated that, vegetative growth parameters of olive seedlings cv. Picual show a negative response when irrigated with saline water up to 2000 ppm and increasing salinity in irrigation water from 2000 to 4000 ppm tended to significantly decrease vegetative growth parameters. Where, exogenous application of salicylic acid with 200 ppm (sparing + soil application) on olive seedlings improved most vegetative studied parameters. Also, current study concluded that, exogenous application of salicylic acid on saline stressed picual olive seedling increased nitrogen and potassium content in leaves than untreated once. Whereas, no effect noticed of exogenous application salicylic acid on the percentage of phosphor content on leaves of saline stressed picual olive seedling.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 727-733 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.14

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hydrochemistry of the Eocene aquifer at the desert fringes of west El-Minya Governorate, Egypt

Yahia Gedamy, Yasser Abdulhady and Ehab Zaghlool

ABSTRACT: The present work focuses on the hydrochemical setting of the Eocene limestone aquifer along the area lying west of El-Minya Governorate. To achieve this goal, seventy-four water samples from the Eocene aquifer, as well as ten water samples from the Pleistocene aquifer as guidance samples were collected. Also, two samples were collected from both El-Ibrahimia and Bahr Yousf canals in the study area. The collected water samples were subjected to chemical analyses to determine both major cations and anions in order to identify the hydrochemical characteristics of the Eocene aquifer in the study area through the discussion of both the salinity of the groundwater, hydrochemical coefficients, hydrochemical facies, hypothetical salts combinations, geochemical classification, geochemical modeling and statistical analyses as well as evaluation of the groundwater for different purposes. The obtained results revealed that; majority of the Eocene groundwater samples in the study area (81%) lie in the fresh zone and 17% of the total groundwater samples lie in the brackish zone while the saline water is less pronounced. The ionic ratios indicated that, the groundwater samples have a mixed mineralization that is possibly pure marine water affected by leaching, dissolution and cation exchange processes of both meteoric water and terrestrial salts. The hydrochemical facies and assemblages of hypothetical salts combinations indicated that; the groundwater of this aquifer is, chemically, goes through three stages of development; less chemically developed stage at the southern portion of the study area, intermediate state of development at the central portion of the study area and finally more chemically evoluted stage at the northern portion of the study area. Both the assemblages of hypothetical salts combinations and Piper’s trilinear diagram as well as the statistical analyses confirmed that the Eocene aquifer is hydraulically connected with the overlain Pleistocene aquifer through the faults plain. Also, the irrigation canals and the return flow after irrigation as well as the seepage from the upper aquifer (Pleistocene aquifer) are the main sources of recharging for the Eocene aquifer. Most of the Eocene groundwater samples are under-saturated with calcite, while all groundwater samples of the Eocene aquifer are under-saturated with respect to the aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite and halite. Most of the Eocene groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. Finally, some recommendations are given.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 734-763 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.15

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Antitumor and Antimicrobial activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) dried powder peel in vitro

Asmaa M. Moghazy, Maie S. Khader, Neveen Saleh

ABSTRACT: Background: The pomegranate fruit possesses therapeutically important constituents that gained significant popularity in the treatment of many diseases. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical compounds of aqueous extract of pomegranate peel (PPE) along with its antimicrobial and antitumor effect on Colorectal (Caco-2) and Colon (HCT-116) cancer cell lines. Method: Aqueous extract of Pomegranate peel was analyzed by HPLC technique. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity was investigating against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and fungi. Likewise, antitumor activity was tested in vitro on the human cell line Colorectal (Caco-2), and Colon (HCT- 116). The cytotoxicity was determined by using MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, preapoptotic and apoptotic gene were analyzed by using Real-Time PCR. While catalase and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were determined by using ELIZA Kits. Result: According to the obtained data, PPE extract contain polyphenolic compounds among which protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and rutin showing the most predominant ones. Besides, PPE has antibacterial activity against Grampositive bacteria and anti-candida activity. Furthermore, PPE was cytotoxic to cancer cells in a concentration and cell type-dependent manner, where the Caco-2 cells were more sensitive to the PPE extract than HCT-116. Where IC50 of Caco- and HCT-116 are 1434 and 2257 μg/ml respectively. Additionally, the anticancer activity was secure via the up/downregulation of the pro-apoptotic gene (Caspase-3 and p53), both genes expression was cell type-dependent as well. While anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05). Also, the apoptotic potential of PPE was confirmed via the arresting of cells in the G2/M phase and elevated apoptotic cell % in the pre-G1 phase. Data obtained also, increasing the level of H2O2 and decreasing catalase activity. Conclusion: PPE has an anti-proliferative potential against Caco-2 and HCT-116 cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. Besides, it has antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 764-775 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.16

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bacterial Contamination of Vegetables Irrigated with Wastewater

Mamdouh S. Al-Gamal, A.A.K. Abou-Arab, M.A. Abou Donia, Lamyaa El-Sideek, Ahmed A. Radwan1and Mohamed Eid T.

ABSTRACT: Population densities and freshwater resources are not equally distributed around the world. This has forced farmers to use wastewater for the irrigation of food crops Although wastewater is an important source of essential nutrients for plants, many environmental, sanitary, and health risks are also associated with the use of wastewater for crop irrigation due to the presence of microbes and pathogenic bacterial strains that have health risk importance which may transfer to the plant crops when this water used for irrigation and affect human health especially when this crops eaten raw (fresh vegetables). Like many other countries, wastewater is frequently used for crops irrigation without any prior treatment in peri-urban areas of Egypt. Present study demonstrates contamination level of irrigation water canals that branched from river Nile and receives wastewater from nearby drains or urban human activities or village around the water canals that dump their waste in the irrigation canals and effect of such wastewater on contamination of soil and fresh vegetables like lettuce, arugula and cucumber that growing in some areas (Qalubia, Giza and Sharkia) that irrigated by such water. Microbial load within the vegetable samples ranged from 5.2 log cfu/gm to 7.9 log cfu/gm, from 4.7 log cfu/gm to 6.3 log cfu/gm for total coliforms and from 4.0 log cfu/gm to 5.6 log cfu/gm for staphylococci counts. The observed mean counts in both irrigation water and the fresh vegetable samples were higher than the recommended standards of 1.0x102 cfu/ml (or cfu/gm) for THB and 1.0x101 cfu/ml (or cfu/gm) for total coliform. There was a positive correlation between water contamination and vegetable contamination during study period. Also many pathogenic bacterial species have been isolated from examined samples (wastewater, soil and raw vegetables) as E.coli sp., Salmonella sp., proteus sp., klebseilla, citrobacter sp., S. aureus, pseudomonas sp. and providencia sp. The results obtained from this study gives information not only on the microbial load
but also on their origins (wastewater) and stimulate concerned entities in Egypt for the necessarily treatment of wastewater before use.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 776-788 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.17

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Optimized operational parameters of anaerobic cellulosic-wastewater treatment for bioenergy recovery and effluent quality improvements

Samir I. Gadow, M. A. El-Shawadfy and Fatma H. Abd El Zaher

ABSTRACT: A series of standardized batch experiments were carried out to optimize the biogas production from cellulosic-rich wastewater treatment. The experimental results showed that the best result was produced under C/N ration of 20 with 80.94 % COD removal and cumulative biogas production reached 44.55 ml/g COD added. The maximum cellulose degradation was achieved at 10 g/L with a cumulative biogas production of 6.13 L/L. Based on the response surface model, the most significant operational parameter was cellulose concentration and C/N ratio with Log Worth values reached 2.112 and1.131, respectively. As for biological pretreatment, the experimental results showed that the pretreatment under shaking cultural conditions produced better results in COD removal efficiency however, the biogas production was negatively affected as well as the soluble by-products concentrations were significantly decreased. The experimental results showed that the changing in the soluble by-product concentrations could explain the effect of operational factors and the best condition was reported.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 789-801 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.18

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------