Oct-Dec, 2019


Growth of Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) Plant as Affected by NPK Formula and rate

Elboraie E.A.H. and M. M. Kasem

ABSTRACT: The current study was achieved to evaluate the influence of different NPK formulas at (20:20:20, 20:10:5 and 16:6:5), NPK rates at (2, 4 and 6 g/pot) and their interactions on vegetative growth and chemical compositions of golden photos (Epipremnum aureum). Two field experiments in a plastic greenhouse were conducted at the Nursery of Vegetables and Floriculture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Egypt, during the two consecutive seasons of 2018 and 2019. The experiment was designed as a factorial in randomized complete block design, since the NPK formulas was the first factor and the NPK rates was the second factor. The obtained results cleared the importance of NPK formulas and rates on improving golden photos growth. Golden photos plants treated with NPK fertilizer formula of 16:6:5 at 4 g/pot gained significant increases in vegetative
growth (vine length, vines number, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weight), pigments content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) and leaves macronutrients contents (N, P and K%). In general, these results may decrease the total NPK fertilization which needed for commercial production of this important foliage indoor plant through decreasing the NPK formula from 20:20:20 to 16:6:5 although increasing the NPK concentrations. Generally, from the previous results can reduce the use of compound fertilizers, especially nitrogen and phosphorus through the use of the least fertilizer equation content (16: 6: 5) and the use of fertilizer dose 4 g where there is no significant differences with the dose of 6 g so we recommend the use of 4 g /pot every three weeks where they reduce the economic cost.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 604-611 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.1


Association between ABO Blood/ Rhesus Grouping and Hepatitis C virus in Egyptian patients

Hussam K.M. Sahow, Samir H. Abdel Aziz, Sabah A. Abo Maaty, Sohair Abdel Rahman and El Dougdoug K. A.

ABSTRACT: The relationship between hepatitis C virus and the host ABO/Rh blood groups appropriately designed study in Egypt. This current study aimed to investigate possible association between ABO blood /Rh groups with HCV infection. In this study, 20 healthy individuals (controls), 90 patients showed like Hepatitis-C symptoms were recruited from June 2018 to March 2019 provided clinical labs in Egypt. The HCV patients groups were matched for their subjects, region, age and sex. In the HC group, there were 75 Rh+ positive (83.3%) and 15 Rh- negative (16.6%) patients. The corresponding figures were (A) 16/23 (69.7%), (B) 17/25 (68 %), (O) 8/20 (40 %) and (AB) 17/22 (54.5 %) for the HCV patients out of AB blood groups. Comparing between the control and HC groups showed no significant difference in terms of the frequency of ABO blood groups (p = 0.70). The HCV patients appeared Severe symptoms thus as, Fever, Joint pain, Weight loss, Liver cell failure and mild symptoms thus as, (Nausea, Vomiting and Abdominal pain. HCV Positive clinical blood 73 out of 90 with rate 81.1% by ELISA. Statistical significant differences were recorded between HCV and blood groups, A, B, O and AB regarding sex. In addition there was highly statistical significant decrease in female than male cases regarding medical history. While nonsignificant differences between ABO blood groups of HCV patient regarding CB Cresults, Biochemical Liver tests and Kidney function, (creatinine and Urea). RT-qPCR of blood viral load showed that the higher percentage of HCV infection was among f blood group B (54.90%) and the lower percentage was among those of blood group O (9.90%) with significant difference (p<0.05) .This association is significant between certain ABO blood groups and HCV.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 612-622 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.2


The use of miniature parks as a museum for Egyptian architectural heritage

Nermin Mokhtar Farrag, Ayman Hesham Elalfy

ABSTRACT: Miniature heritage parks are considered a good chance for people to be aware of their countries architectural heritage. It might be hard for every person to visit most of a country’s monumental places. Egypt is a country that has various historical places and a lot of monuments located in different natural and cultural environments. Egypt had passed various historical periods including
pharaonic, Coptic and Islamic. Miniature heritage parks contain a blend of small scale architectural models and sculpture art models that compose a good knowledge environment that enhance its visitors to know about their heritage. Although Egypt has a very rich heritage environment. Yet there are few opened miniature heritage parks. Nowadays there is a great demand to enhance the design and construction of such parks with the guidance of the foreign miniature heritage parks found in China, Holland and the United States of America. The research goal is to enhance the architectural design process for heritage mini parks in Egypt through a comparative study for of some foreign park examples displaying Egyptian monumental models and two miniature heritage parks existing in Egypt reaching architectural design criteria that should be considered during the design process.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 623-639 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.3


Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of resistant and persistent diabetic macular edema

Hazem Azab M.D., Maged Adly Naguib M.D.

ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in diabetic macular edema, refractory cases. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of forty eyes diagnosed clinically and supported with optical coherence tomography with diabetic macular edema were than 300 m in thickness. All eyes were injected with a single injection preservative free triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg /0.1 ml). Patients were subjected to visual acuity and optical coherence tomography on each follow up visit which was continued for mean eight months. Results: The mean central subfield thickness at baseline was 504 m, at five weeks. The mean central subfield thickness dropped by about 195 m and baseline visual acuity 0.8 log MAR unit was improved by 0.02 log MAR unit from baseline that were recorded in 17 (42.5%) eyes, 11 (27.5%) eyes improved in central subfield thickness without improved vision, 5 (12.5%) eyes more worse than before injection and lastly 7 (17.5%) eyes without changes in central subfield thickness or visual acuity. Conclusion: triamcinolone acetonide is safe, effective and promising therapy in resistant and persistent diabetic macular edema.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 640-646 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.4


The impact of flaxseed oil active compounds in its native and nano forms on the rat gut microbiota

Sherif S. Mohamed, Abdel-Hameed M. Fayed, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz and Ahmed S. Montser

ABSTRACT: The beneficial effects of the gastrointestinal microbiota and mankind health take multitude interest in the recent researcher studies. According a lot of studies proven that flax seeds contain bioactive materials such as precursors of omega-3 and omega 6,polysaccharides, cyclic peptides, lignin, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, and cadmium. Lignin that is usually exists in content within flaxseed oil required intestinal bacteria to be metabolized in order to absorption through intestinal mucosa to the systemic circulation in humans. This study concentrated on the impact of either flaxseed oil or its nanoemulsionas prophylaxis the growth of total account of microbiota in rat’s colon. The male adult albino rats (Western) strain, weighting 120±30 gm. Were divided into four groups: Group I:rats that received saline (serve as normal control), Group II: rats that received 1ml flax seed oil (as reference), Group III: rats were received 1ml flax seed oil nanoparticles and Group IV: rats that received 2ml flax seed oil nanoparticles. The results determined that the lowest total bacterial counts (CFU/ml) was found with rats treated with 1ml of oil nanoemulsion whereas the highest total bacterial count was found with rats treated with 2ml oil nanoemulsion. It was worthy that findings confirmed the consumption of flaxseed oil nanoemulsion amounted to 2ml was the highest total bacteria than natural form. It may be regarded to the nanoemulsion was a better gastro-intestinal absorption of the precursor omega-3 fatty acids resulted to the nanoparticles size and enrichment the colon micobiota by others phytochemical bioactivities as well as lignin.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 647-654 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.5


Antioxidative and Hypoglycemic Effects of Delonix elata and Vachellia farnesiana Leaves Extracts on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

Sameera A. Alghamdi

ABSTRACT: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to be a group of metabolic disorders characterized by an elevated glucose level. Plants are the most promising causes of new therapeutic agents. The usual usage of plant products for the managing of DM has grown up because of the nominal side-effects with the minimal economy as controlling of diabetes without the side-effects is a challenge. The drugs prepared from the plants may play a major role in the treatment. This study aims to inspect the hypoglycemic with antioxidant potentiality of leaves extract from Delonix elata (DELE) and Vachellia farnesiana (VFLE) in streptozotocin (STZ) male rats with DM. This study incorporates 80 Wistar male rats categorized into eight groups. Normal control rats were appeared in groupr1. Untreated DM rats termed as DM controls as in group 2. Groups 3-5 involve the DELE, VFLE and DELE plus VFLE as DM rats. Groups 6-8 were treated as normal rats with DELE, VFLE and DELE plus VFLE respectively. The DM control group inhibited decrease in body weight and increased in the serum levels of glucose, HbA1c, protein and lipid profiles, creatinine, BUN. ALT, AST and MDA, whereas, serum insulin, GPx and CAT levels were reduced. In Gr3-5 of DM rats, extracts disclosed clear influence at body weight, glucose, HbA1c, protein and lipid profiles, liver and kidney functions parameter, and oxidative stress markers. The results revealed the extracts exhibited significant anti-oxidant and hypoglycemic activity which could be the appearance of pharmacologically active ingredients. However, these extracts can be applied alternatively in dealing DM and allied complications. In conclusion, the novel of these plant extracts further should be investigated to reconfirm for predicting their clinical potential as a phytomedicine for DM treatment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 655-666 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.6


Deficit Irrigation Management in Arid Regions by Adding Biochar to Sandy Soils: Sweet Pepper Cultivation

El-Shawadfy M. A. and Abdelraouf R. E.

ABSTRACT: Promoting the rationalization of water consumption and the growth of plants under deficit of irrigation water are major concerns in arid and semi-arid areas. It is necessary to use safe and environmentally friendly methods and treatments for this purpose to overcome water shortage problems with special emphasis on sustainable resource management and environmental protection. Two field experiments were carried out during growing seasons 2017 and 2018 to study the effect of adding biochar on application efficiency of irrigation water, yield of sweet pepper (YSP) , water productivity (WP) and vitamin C of sweet pepper under irrigation scheduling based on deficit irrigation conditions. Three application rates of biochar [0 (control) ,3.5, 7 and 10.5 ton ha.-1] were used under three levels from irrigation water treatments [100% Full Irrigation, (FI) , {75% of FI and 50% of FI (deficit irrigation)} from irrigation requirements for sweet pepper ]. The results revealed that increasing the application of biochar materials under deficit irrigation conditions had a positive impact o YSP, WP and vitamin C of sweet pepper. The most effective level in this regard when plant were irrigated with FI and adding 10.5 ton ha-1of bioshar as well as when plant were irrigated with 75 % FI and adding 10.5 ton ha-1of bioshar in both seasons of 2017 and 2018 respectively. A similar direction was observed with vitamin C content of sweet pepper compared with control treatments and irrigation with 50 % of FI without adding biochar. In addition, water productivity parameter were significantly improved by application of adding biochar under irrigation treatments. The potential function of biochar on soil and yield under deficit of irrigation water for sweet pepper plants was discussed.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 667-677 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.7


New Technologies in Improving Chemical Properties and Sensory Attributes of Olive Oil

Susan M. M. Abd-Elmageed, Rania I. M. Almoselhy and Badawy H. A. A.

ABSTRACT: This work aimed to improve the quality of lampante virgin olive oil (LVOO) (olive oil with severe defects greater than 6.0 or free acidity greater than 3.3%). It is not fit for human consumption. LVOO may come from bad fruit from improper handling. Lampante virgin olive oil (LVOO) was mixed with good olive oil cake (OOC) (olive pomace) and good olive mill wastewater (OMWW) by ratio 20: 30: 50. This mixture was transported to malaxer unit, for malaxing at 30, 45, and 60 min. After each malaxation time the paste was sent to the decanter to re-extract the oil. In decanter unit paste was divided into three phases, after decantation the husk that was given out from the machine was transported to the outside of the mill. For recovering the oil, the machine used the centrifugal force (separator), oil and OMWW were transported to separator unit for separation oil from water. During the re-extraction of olive oil with malaxation time 30, 45, and 60 min, changes in chemical properties and sensory attributes were studied. Results indicated that sensory attributes were improved at three malaxation time 30, 45, and 60 min, mainly fruitiness and bitterness, the high malaxing time 60 min was the best. Also results revealed that chemical properties were improved at three malaxation time, mainly free acidity and peroxide value which were decreased, and high malaxation time was the best, olive oil obtained by this techniques may classified as ordinary olive oil (free acidity less than 3.3% and defect less than 6.0. These results suggested the use of these techniques to improve the quality of LVOO.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 678-686 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.8


The Potential Protective Effect of Sesame Oil and Canola Oil on Rats Exposed to Malathion

Daklallah A. Almalki

ABSTRACT: Currently, the environmental pollution is occurring on a vast and unprecedented scale around the globe. Pesticides are the largest group of chemicals that are used widely in modern agricultural practices. Pesticides have been associated with health and environmental issues, and the agricultural use of certain pesticides has been abandoned. Pesticides are basically poisons and therefore toxic to living organism at particular dose. Medicinal plants have a promising future because there are about half million plants around the world, and most of them their medical activities have not investigate yet, and their medical activities could be decisive in the treatment of present or future studies. Natural products from plants, animals and minerals are the basis for treating human diseases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sesame oil and canola oil on male rats exposed to malathion. Experimental rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 was served as normal control. Rats of group 2 were exposed to malathion. Rats of group 3 were treated with sesame oil and malathion. Rats of group 4 were subjected to canola oil and malathion. Rats of group 5 and 6 were supplemented with sesame oil and canola oil respectively. After the end of experimental duration (8 weeks), rats of group 2 showed significant reduction of body weight gain, and severe hematological and biochemical alterations including significant decreases of RBC, HB, Hct, WBC, total protein, glucose and CAT, and increases of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid and MDA values. Administration of sesame oil and canola oil improved the observed hematological and biochemical alterations induced by malathion intoxication. These new findings indicate that sesame oil and canola oil represent protective roles on hematological and biochemical disturbances induced by malathion toxicity due to their antioxidant activities.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 687-698 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.9


Analytical Determination of Cefepime Residues in Rabbit’ Muscles, Liver and Kidney Using HPLC

Farida El-Dars, Nahla S. Elshater and Safaa M. Abd Elaziz

ABSTRACT: In this study, residues of cefepime in different rabbit tissues (liver, kidney, thigh muscle and pectoral muscle) were analytically determined after intramuscular administrations. A total of 24 healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups. The first group (n=3) remained untreated for use as control, while the second group (n=21) was administered with 75 mg/kg cefepime for five consecutive days. The liver, kidney, thigh muscle and pectoral muscles were collected after the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 14th and 21st day post cefepime hydrochloride administration. Cefepime residues were extracted from the relative tissue and analyzed using HPLC equipped with a UV detector at 256 nm. The results indicated a widespread distribution of cefepime in most of the tested tissues. However, it remained detectable within the liver and kidney till the 7th and 9th day, respectively, after the last administered dose. On the other hand, the drug levels within the thigh and pectoral muscles were not detectable after the 3rd day of administration. Accordingly, it may be concluded that a 9-day period was a safe period to ensure the complete disappearance of cefepime from the examined tissues and to render the animal safe for human consumption.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 699-706 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.10


Relation between Anthropometric Measurements and Serum Lipid Profile among Postmenopausal Women with Hypertension

Wafaa Mohammad Kamal, Eman Emad Kamel and Hossam El-Din Hossein Kamel

ABSTRACT: Background: Menopause is the time that marks the end of menstrual cycles. Weight gain and obesity is one of its physical symptoms that may disrupt the woman's life. In fact, obesity and metabolic syndrome are three times more frequently found in women during this period of their lives than before menopause. Aim: to verify association between serum lipid concentrations and
anthropometric measures like body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) and which one of these anthropometric variables (BMI or WHR) is a better link to lipid profile among postmenopausal women with hypertension. Subjects: To conduct this study, forty-five postmenopausal women with hypertension were collected from the outpatient clinic of Menouf General Hospital. Their ages ranged from 55-65 years old, their body mass index (BMI) ranged from 30 to 34.9 kg/m2 and their waist/hip ratio ranged from 0.78 to 1. All participants were pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension ranged from 140/90 to 159/99 mmHg as diagnosed by physicians and they weren't received any medication. Methods: data were obtained for all women by measuring BMI, waist/hip ratio and serum level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). Results: WHR had a more powerful relation with serum lipid profile than BMI. So, WHR is a better predictor of TC and LDL among postmenopausal women. Conclusion: WHR and WC had a more powerful relation with serum lipid profile than BMI. So, WHR is considered a better predictor of TC and LDL among postmenopausal women. The implications of these findings underline the importance of WHR as a cardio-metabolic health marker in postmenopausal women, independent of BMI.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 707-710 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.11


Organic summer squash production using chicken manure, compost and AMF for enhancing soil fertility

Amal K. Abou El-Goud and Mona M. Yousry

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, (Saba-Basha) - Alexandria University, during the growing seasons of 2017 and 2018, in order to study the effect of organic and bio fertilizer such as chicken manure, Compost and AM fungi on yield and quality of summer squash (El-Askandarani sp.). The study was conducted with randomized complete block design with three replicates. Eight treatments were carried out in this investigation i.e. (AM fungi, 100 % compost, 100 % chicken manure, 50 % compost + 50 % chicken manure, 50% compost + AM fungi, 50% chicken manure + AM fungi, 33.5% compost + 33.5% chicken manure + AM fungi and the recommended doses of chemical fertilizers N,P,K as a control ). The effects of the treatments on the growth, yield and plant nutrient elements of leaves and fruits of summer squash were determined. The results indicated that using 50% chicken manure + AM fungi improved significantly vegetative growth characters ( plant height, No. leaves/plant, leaf area index, shoot and root dry weight and nutritional status of plants in leaves and fruits) except 50 % compost + 50 % chicken manure gave the highest values in chlorophyll reading of leaves. Treatments of chicken manure increased significantly all morphological characteristics and qualities of squash. Also, AM fungi additions led to increase mineral content of leaves and fruits compared with control treatment. In our experience, add two types of organic fertilizers to cultivated squash with addition of AM fungi had different effects on the quality and quantity of the yield.The highest values of early and total yield production was achieved by the combination of 33.5% compost + 33.5% chicken manure + AM fungi compared to the control treatment. Also, the use of 100% chicken manure was increased values of the fruit length, fruit diameter and average fruit weight significantly compared to data recorded by the control. This study demonstrated the possibility of producing a good yield of squash safe and healthy without any applying chemical fertilizers via integration of compost, chicken manure and AM fungi as cleanly fertilizers and environmentally friendly practices.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 711-720 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.12


Efficacy of Phonophoresis with Corticosteroids on Bell's Palsy Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Abd Elhady S. AbuMandour, Gehan M. Ahmed, PhD, Sandra M. ahmed, PhD and Youssef M. Elbalawy

ABSTRACT: Background: Bell’s palsy is an acute, generally unilateral paralysis or weakness of facial musculature consistent with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction, of no detectable cause, Additional symptoms frequently include pain around or behind the ear on the affected side, sometimes extending into the occipital or cervical regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of
phonophoresis with hydrocortisone on patients with acute bell's palsy. Methodology: thirty patients with acute bell'-s palsy both sexes, their ages were ranged from (15-45) years were assigned into three equal groups (group a and b): group (A) This group consists of 15 patients received oral systemic steroids and aplacebo effect of Phonophoresis (sham effect) while group (B) This group consists of 15 patients received the same oral drugs and hydrocortisone Phonophoresis.. Subjects were assessed using Electrodiagnostic testing (nerve conduction velocity). Results: Considering the effect of the tested group (first independent variable) on NCV, "unpaired t test" revealed that the mean values of the "pre" test between both groups showed there was no significant differences (p>0.05). But, the mean values of the "post" test between both groups showed there was significant differences (p<0.05)
and this significant increase in favor of group B in compared to group A. Conclusion: It was suggested that phonophoresis with hydrocortisone is beneficial for patients with acute bell's palsy.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 721-726 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.13


Influence of soil application and spraying of salicylic acid on improving growth and leaf mineral content of olive seedling grow under saline condition

Laila F.Hagagg, M.I.F. Fawzi, M.F.M., Shahin, A.B. El-Sayed and Eman S. El-Hady

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of exogenously application of salicylic acid (SA) on growth and leaf nutrient content of olive seedlings picual cv. irrigated with saline water grow in shade house. Seedlings subjected during two growth seasons (2016-2017) to salicylic acid (SA) which applied as foliar and soil application at three concentrations (0, 200, and 400 ppm) on olive seedlings cv. Picual grown under three levels of salinity (0, 2000, 4000 ppm). At the end of each growth season different vegetative growth parameters (plant height increment, leaf dry weight, leaves moist percentage, leaves no. and shoots no.) were determined. Moreover, leaf nutrient status were been estimated. Obtained results indicated that, vegetative growth parameters of olive seedlings cv. Picual show a negative response when irrigated with saline water up to 2000 ppm and increasing salinity in irrigation water from 2000 to 4000 ppm tended to significantly decrease vegetative growth parameters. Where, exogenous application of salicylic acid with 200 ppm (sparing + soil application) on olive seedlings improved most vegetative studied parameters. Also, current study concluded that, exogenous application of salicylic acid on saline stressed picual olive seedling increased nitrogen and potassium content in leaves than untreated once. Whereas, no effect noticed of exogenous application salicylic acid on the percentage of phosphor content on leaves of saline stressed picual olive seedling.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 727-733 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.14


Hydrochemistry of the Eocene aquifer at the desert fringes of west El-Minya Governorate, Egypt

Yahia Gedamy, Yasser Abdulhady and Ehab Zaghlool

ABSTRACT: The present work focuses on the hydrochemical setting of the Eocene limestone aquifer along the area lying west of El-Minya Governorate. To achieve this goal, seventy-four water samples from the Eocene aquifer, as well as ten water samples from the Pleistocene aquifer as guidance samples were collected. Also, two samples were collected from both El-Ibrahimia and Bahr Yousf canals in the study area. The collected water samples were subjected to chemical analyses to determine both major cations and anions in order to identify the hydrochemical characteristics of the Eocene aquifer in the study area through the discussion of both the salinity of the groundwater, hydrochemical coefficients, hydrochemical facies, hypothetical salts combinations, geochemical classification, geochemical modeling and statistical analyses as well as evaluation of the groundwater for different purposes. The obtained results revealed that; majority of the Eocene groundwater samples in the study area (81%) lie in the fresh zone and 17% of the total groundwater samples lie in the brackish zone while the saline water is less pronounced. The ionic ratios indicated that, the groundwater samples have a mixed mineralization that is possibly pure marine water affected by leaching, dissolution and cation exchange processes of both meteoric water and terrestrial salts. The hydrochemical facies and assemblages of hypothetical salts combinations indicated that; the groundwater of this aquifer is, chemically, goes through three stages of development; less chemically developed stage at the southern portion of the study area, intermediate state of development at the central portion of the study area and finally more chemically evoluted stage at the northern portion of the study area. Both the assemblages of hypothetical salts combinations and Piper’s trilinear diagram as well as the statistical analyses confirmed that the Eocene aquifer is hydraulically connected with the overlain Pleistocene aquifer through the faults plain. Also, the irrigation canals and the return flow after irrigation as well as the seepage from the upper aquifer (Pleistocene aquifer) are the main sources of recharging for the Eocene aquifer. Most of the Eocene groundwater samples are under-saturated with calcite, while all groundwater samples of the Eocene aquifer are under-saturated with respect to the aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite and halite. Most of the Eocene groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. Finally, some recommendations are given.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 734-763 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.15


Antitumor and Antimicrobial activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) dried powder peel in vitro

Asmaa M. Moghazy, Maie S. Khader, Neveen Saleh

ABSTRACT: Background: The pomegranate fruit possesses therapeutically important constituents that gained significant popularity in the treatment of many diseases. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical compounds of aqueous extract of pomegranate peel (PPE) along with its antimicrobial and antitumor effect on Colorectal (Caco-2) and Colon (HCT-116) cancer cell lines. Method: Aqueous extract of Pomegranate peel was analyzed by HPLC technique. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity was investigating against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and fungi. Likewise, antitumor activity was tested in vitro on the human cell line Colorectal (Caco-2), and Colon (HCT- 116). The cytotoxicity was determined by using MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, preapoptotic and apoptotic gene were analyzed by using Real-Time PCR. While catalase and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were determined by using ELIZA Kits. Result: According to the obtained data, PPE extract contain polyphenolic compounds among which protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and rutin showing the most predominant ones. Besides, PPE has antibacterial activity against Grampositive bacteria and anti-candida activity. Furthermore, PPE was cytotoxic to cancer cells in a concentration and cell type-dependent manner, where the Caco-2 cells were more sensitive to the PPE extract than HCT-116. Where IC50 of Caco- and HCT-116 are 1434 and 2257 μg/ml respectively. Additionally, the anticancer activity was secure via the up/downregulation of the pro-apoptotic gene (Caspase-3 and p53), both genes expression was cell type-dependent as well. While anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05). Also, the apoptotic potential of PPE was confirmed via the arresting of cells in the G2/M phase and elevated apoptotic cell % in the pre-G1 phase. Data obtained also, increasing the level of H2O2 and decreasing catalase activity. Conclusion: PPE has an anti-proliferative potential against Caco-2 and HCT-116 cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. Besides, it has antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 764-775 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.16


Bacterial Contamination of Vegetables Irrigated with Wastewater

Mamdouh S. Al-Gamal, A.A.K. Abou-Arab, M.A. Abou Donia, Lamyaa El-Sideek, Ahmed A. Radwan1and Mohamed Eid T.

ABSTRACT: Population densities and freshwater resources are not equally distributed around the world. This has forced farmers to use wastewater for the irrigation of food crops Although wastewater is an important source of essential nutrients for plants, many environmental, sanitary, and health risks are also associated with the use of wastewater for crop irrigation due to the presence of microbes and pathogenic bacterial strains that have health risk importance which may transfer to the plant crops when this water used for irrigation and affect human health especially when this crops eaten raw (fresh vegetables). Like many other countries, wastewater is frequently used for crops irrigation without any prior treatment in peri-urban areas of Egypt. Present study demonstrates contamination level of irrigation water canals that branched from river Nile and receives wastewater from nearby drains or urban human activities or village around the water canals that dump their waste in the irrigation canals and effect of such wastewater on contamination of soil and fresh vegetables like lettuce, arugula and cucumber that growing in some areas (Qalubia, Giza and Sharkia) that irrigated by such water. Microbial load within the vegetable samples ranged from 5.2 log cfu/gm to 7.9 log cfu/gm, from 4.7 log cfu/gm to 6.3 log cfu/gm for total coliforms and from 4.0 log cfu/gm to 5.6 log cfu/gm for staphylococci counts. The observed mean counts in both irrigation water and the fresh vegetable samples were higher than the recommended standards of 1.0x102 cfu/ml (or cfu/gm) for THB and 1.0x101 cfu/ml (or cfu/gm) for total coliform. There was a positive correlation between water contamination and vegetable contamination during study period. Also many pathogenic bacterial species have been isolated from examined samples (wastewater, soil and raw vegetables) as E.coli sp., Salmonella sp., proteus sp., klebseilla, citrobacter sp., S. aureus, pseudomonas sp. and providencia sp. The results obtained from this study gives information not only on the microbial load
but also on their origins (wastewater) and stimulate concerned entities in Egypt for the necessarily treatment of wastewater before use.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 776-788 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.17


Optimized operational parameters of anaerobic cellulosic-wastewater treatment for bioenergy recovery and effluent quality improvements

Samir I. Gadow, M. A. El-Shawadfy and Fatma H. Abd El Zaher

ABSTRACT: A series of standardized batch experiments were carried out to optimize the biogas production from cellulosic-rich wastewater treatment. The experimental results showed that the best result was produced under C/N ration of 20 with 80.94 % COD removal and cumulative biogas production reached 44.55 ml/g COD added. The maximum cellulose degradation was achieved at 10 g/L with a cumulative biogas production of 6.13 L/L. Based on the response surface model, the most significant operational parameter was cellulose concentration and C/N ratio with Log Worth values reached 2.112 and1.131, respectively. As for biological pretreatment, the experimental results showed that the pretreatment under shaking cultural conditions produced better results in COD removal efficiency however, the biogas production was negatively affected as well as the soluble by-products concentrations were significantly decreased. The experimental results showed that the changing in the soluble by-product concentrations could explain the effect of operational factors and the best condition was reported.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 789-801 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.18


Impact of different pelvic floor exercises position on women with stress urinary incontinence

Silvia N. Toos, Amel M. Youssef, Asmaa M. El-Bandrawy and Ahmed M. Bahaa Eldin

ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: Pelvic floor muscle exercises are used to rehabilitate and strength pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) and promote urine storage. Pelvic floor muscle demands may be influenced by position. Objective: Prospective study to objectively evaluate impact of different pelvic floor exercises positions on women with stress urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods: Fortyfive women at the age of 40-50 years diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were selected for this study, their body mass index (BMI) was <30 kg/m².They were randomly assigned to exercise in the crock lying position (A), standing position (B) or sitting position (C). The treatment program was done two times per week for 12 weeks. Squeeze vaginal pressure and revised urinary incontinence scale (RUIS) outcomes were obtained at baseline and after treatment. Results: Showed a statistically significant increase (P<0.001) in the mean value of squeeze vaginal pressure and a statistical significant decrease (P<0.001) in the mean value of (RUIS) in all groups (A, B&C) after treatment. Between groups, there were significant differences in all groups before and after treatment but in favor of group A (P<0.001). Conclusion: Pelvic floor muscle exercises from different position (crock lying, standing and sitting) are effective in treating stress urinary incontinence but crock lying position is more recommended.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 802-809 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.19


Factors Affecting Esthetics and Design of the Smile. A Review

Nahed A. Khalil

ABSTRACT: The appearance of a human being is of important and great value in his life and society. The patients expectations are always high in getting beautiful and attractive smiles. Hence, the dentists have to do their best to fulfill these expectations as far as they can. Nowadays, the great advancement of dental materials and the introduced new techniques enable the dentists to provide wide varieties of treatment options to restore and improve the patients smile with an esthetic concern. Smiling has been one of the areas that draw the interest of the majority of dental specialties .In order to achieve a proper design of an attractive esthetic smile , it should be well understood what an ideal smile is and what are the factors that can affect it. This should certainly be reflected on the required successful treatment plan. Thus, this review aims to survey the current state of knowledge about the factors affecting smile esthetics as well as smile analysis and design. Also, the analysis of the surrounding soft tissues actually plays an important role in achieving the required pleasant smile.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 810-819 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.20


Management of Cucumber Powdery Mildew Disease Caused by Podosphaera xanthii by some Fungicides and Resistance Inducing Chemicals

Abd-Elsayed, M.H.F., Sarhan E.A.D. and Ebrahiem A.M.Y.

ABSTRACT Powdery mildew disease, Podosphaera xanthii (syn. Sphaerotheca fuliginea auct. p.p.), attacked all the cucumber cultivars under open fields conditions, causing a serious damage to foliage and yield of infected plants. The efficiency of some fungicides (Topas, Score, Flent, Thiovit jet and Actamyl) and resistance inducing chemicals (KNO3 and K2HPO4) for management of cucumber powdery mildew disease was evaluated in vitro tests, greenhouse and field conditions. The tested fungicides were significantly inhibited the conidial spore germination of fungus than RICS as well as the control. A significant decrease also was obtained in the disease severity (DS) and the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) in greenhouse experiment, where the tested fungicides were more effective. Under natural infection, the tested fungicides were highly reduced the DS and AUDPC, than other treatments in field experiments during 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. When the tested fungicides alternated with RICs were more effective and resulted highly increased the fruit yield (quality and quantity) than the tested fungicides and RICS individually in both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 820-828 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.21


Relationship between forward head posture and sacral slope angle

Salma M. Ahmed, Hamed M. Elkhozamy, Salwa F. Abdul Majeed and Alaa E. Abd EL Hakim Balba

ABSTRACT: Purpose: to investigate the relation between forward head posture and sacral slope angle in chronic neck pain patients. Methods: Forty patients of both genders 13 male and 27 female with chronic neck pain aged (18:30) were recruited from the outpatient physiotherapy clinic of Kaser elany medical school. Patients were divided into Group A (cranio-vertebral angel is < 46°C) and Group B (cranio-vertebral angle is >45°C), the visual analogue scale, Oswestry disability index, electronic head posture instrument (EHPI), x ray were used to measure neck pain, back function craniovertebral angle, sacral slope angle and pelvic incidence, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that, Forward head posture was not significantly correlated neither with sacral slope angle (r=0.188; P <0.05), nor with pelvic incidence (r=0.077; P <0.05). Further cranio-vertebral angle) has no correlation with neck pain (r=0.077), and ODI (r=0.04). Conclusion: there is no correlation between forward head posture and pelvic parameters (pelvic incidence and sacral slope angle), these faulty head posture has no influence on neck pain and back function.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 829-837 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.22


Short Term Effects of Dexamethasone on Histological Structure of Adrenal Gland and Testis of Male Mouse

Amal I. El-Refaiy

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of corticosteroids hormone on the adrenal gland and testis of albino mouse. The study was carried out on 30 male mice; the animals were divided into three groups (10 animals per each): group (I) served as control; group (II) treated with 4mg/kg.bw dexamethasone for 14 days; group (III) treated with 8mg/kg.bw for 14 days. Histologically, the cortex of adrenal gland revealed obvious clear fibrotic areas, nuclear pyknosis and karyorrhexis in three zones. Testicular sections showed detached, sloughed or vacuolated seminiferous tubules, the majority of seminiferous tubules exhibited necrotic spermatogonia and pyknotic nuclei.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 838-845 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.23


Quantification of active materials and antioxidants in some medicinal plants and their antibacterial effects

Inas M. Khamis and Ahmed A. Aly

ABSTRACT: Commonly used plants, especially in Arab societies, are Punica granatum, Laurus Nobilis and Aloe vera, which have the largest share to be considered for this study and to determine whether they can be used as antioxidants and as antibacterial to many pathogenic bacterial strains. The study was carried out on five samples; peel pomegranate fruit, laurel leaves, Whole cactus leaf, cactus leaf after the removal of the gel and the cactus gel only. The five studied extracts were found to be free of anthocyanins and cardiac glycosides. The highest percentage of total phenols and flavonoids were found in Punica granatum; and the lowest percentage were found in the Aloe vera gel extract. On contrast, the highest percentage of tannins was in Laurus Nobilis leaves and the lowest percentage was extracted from the leaves of Aloe vera without gel. When determining the values of IC50, Punica granatum peel, Laurus Nobilis leaves and total Aloe vera leaves were found to have antioxidant activity due to their ability to capture free radicals. The antimicrobial study revealed that, the ten strains of pathogenic bacteria with effect on six strains from them. The highest effect was found for Punica granatum peel extract on staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the lowest effect was for Punica granatum peel extract with 6 mm inhibition zone and extract of total Aloe vera leaves on Klebsiella pneumoniae and gel extract on Staphylococcus aureus with 8 mm inhibition zone. Therefore, it is recommended to use Punica granatum peel, Laurus Nobilis leaves and Aloe vera leaves as antioxidant and antibacterial against many pathogenic bacterial strains. It should also consider the use of whole Aloe vera leaves, not gel only because they contain high concentration of active materials higher than those found in gels.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 846-851 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.24


Using of Natural Antioxidant for Preparing Pizza

Mohamed R.G. Youssif, Safaa K. Hassen and Jermine S. Fahim

ABSTRACT: The present work was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of wheat flour in pizza dough with 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% of broccoli powder, tomato powder and moringa leaves powder as natural sources of antioxidants on nutritional value, rheological characteristics and sensory properties. The results revealed that tomato powder had high values of lipids, ash and contained the high levels of minerals including (Na, K, P, Mg, Cu and Zn) compared to broccoli powder and moringa levels powder. The broccoli powder, tomato powder and moringa leaves powder showed significant differences in antioxidant constituents including phenolic, flavonoids ascorbic acid and beta-carotene. The obtained results indicated that, dried broccoli flower had the highest content of vitamin C being 82.42 mg/100g followed by moringa leaves powder 19.82 mg/100g and tomato powder 15.04 mg/100g, respectively. On the other hand, the highest value of β-carotene content was in moringa leaves powder being 17.70 mg/100g, followed by tomato powder 1.67 mg/100g and broccoli powder 1.39 mg/100g. Incorporation of increasing amount of tomato powder and moringa leaves powder from 0 to 4% increased farinograph water absorption and dough extensibility while, both of dough stability, resistance to extension and dough energy were decreased gradually. Generally, replacement of wheat flour with broccoli powder, tomato powder and moringa leaves powder to processed pizza increased its content of crude protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and minerals while carbohydrates content decreased compared to control sample. Also, antioxidant content of product including (phenolic, flavonoids, vitamin C and β-carotene compounds) was increased. Also, the increase was correlated with the percent of broccoli, tomato and moringa leaves powder replacement. Both of hardness, chewiness and gumminess values were gradually increased by increasing the replacement levels with broccoli powder, tomato powder and moringa leaves powder than that of the control pizza sample. Finally, a replacement up to 3% of broccoli powder, 3% tomato powder and 2% moringa leaves powder gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 852-873 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.25


Effect of Treadmill training on Gait in Multiple Sclerosis patient: A randomized controlled trial

Moshira H. Darwish, PhD; Sandra M. Ahmed, PhD; Mahmoud Y. El Zanaty, PhD and Mohamed T. Emam

ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: The most effective treatment approach to improve walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is not known. The aim of this trial was to Evaluate the effect of treadmill training on gait in people with multiple sclerosis. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Multiple Sclerosis Center, Alkasr Al-Ainy Subjects: Forty people from both sex with multiple sclerosis, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (S.D) was 4.3 (1.3). Their Age ranged from 25-45 years old, Last attack occured at least "three" months ago, Duration of illness started " one" to "two" years ago, Duration of immune regulatory therapy " one" to "two" years. Interventions: Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, study group(GA) received 8 week training sessions of physical therapy program in addition to treadmill training (n=20). control group(GB) received physical therapy program (n=20) in an outpatient basis. Main measures: Spatio-temporal parameters of walking which include step length and speed. Results: At the termination, there was significant increase (p <0.05) in left and right step length and speed in the post treatment condition compared with the pre treatment in both groups. Regarding between subject effects multiple pairwise comparisons revealed that there was significant increase (p <0.05) in speed in favor to group A than group B. while there were no significant differences (p >0.05) between both groups in left and right step length. Conclusions: Treadmill training in addition to physical therapy program are a possible treatment option for people with multiple sclerosis in order to improve their walking capabilities. However, this approach does not have any significant advantage over physical therapy program alone.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 874-879 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.26


Biological evaluation of biscuits prepared from citrus peels as a lowering cholesterol

Fawzy M. Lashin and Sh. J. Kerolles

ABSTRACT: The present investigation was carried out to study the protective effects of some functional foods in reducing cardiovascular risks. Thus we prepare biscuits formulas containing the different citrus peel powder. Biscuit formulas were evaluated the biological evaluation on rats to study their effect on lipid profile, which are the main factors affecting atherosclerosis diseases. Eight groups were fed on a different diet and formulated biscuit as follows; basal diet (normal control), hypercholesterolemic (cholesterol and cholic acid 3:1) diet and biscuit containing abo-sora orange, balady orange and mandarin peels at level 5 and 10%. The results showed that a significant reduction in serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol and decreased of LDL-cholesterol at the end of the feeding period. The best effect was found in the groups fed on abo-sora orange peel 10%, followed by the balady orange and mandarin peel. Therefore it can be concluded and recommended that biscuit product from orange abo-sora and balady and also mandarin can be used as a new trained of functional food which has a healthy role in addition to the nutritional value for the consumers. They keep them healthy and protect them from diseases, namely cardiovascular and atherosclerosis.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 880-887 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.27


Protective and Treatment Effect of Germinated Turnip Seeds (Brassica Rapa L.) and Radish Seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) against Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elshahat G. El-Dreny

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out with the aim of studying the effect of germinated radish seeds and turnip seeds against carbon tetrachloride - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The chemical composition of radish and turnip seeds before and after germinated. Total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity and fatty acids have been studied in germinated radish and turnip seeds. A biological experiment was carried out on 30 male rats. Rats were divided into six groups (five in group) the experiment was 8 weeks. The first three groups are (preventive groups) are not injected with carbon tetrachloride, the first group G1 fed on basal diet only, the second group G2 fed on basal diet supplemented with 10% germinated radish seeds and the third group G3 fed on basal diet supplemented with 10% germinated turnip seeds. Other treated groups had hepatotoxicity with carbon tetrachloride the fourth group G4 fed on the basal diet only, the fifth group G5 fed on basal diet supplemented with 10% radish sprouts and the sixth group G6 rats fed on basal diet supplemented with 10% turnip sprouts. Results showed that the germinated seeds content high amount of protein and ash and a decrease in their content of fats compared to non-germinated seeds. Germinated seeds are rich in mineral elements, unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. Reduced serum lipid profile, improvement in liver and kidney functions in rats fed on germinated radish seeds and turnip seeds compared to rats fed on the basal diet only. Through the results of this study, the possibility of using germinated radish seeds and turnip seeds for the prevention and treatment of liver patients.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 888-897 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.28


An Economic Study of Agricultural Investment in Egypt

Eman Abd Elghafour Ahmed and Manal F. Mohamed

ABSTRACT: Perhaps the relationship between domestic investment and economic growth lies in the importance of investment in increasing the rate of economic growth, through its ability to compensate for the lack of domestic savings, and thus stimulate further economic growth, as the effect of local investment in bringing about technological progress by investing in equipment and the new capital machinery accompanying local investments, leading to an increase in the overall productivity of the factors of production. This research aims to study the impact of agricultural investment on the performance of Egyptian economic growth during the period (2005-2018). In achieving its objectives, the research relied on methods of descriptive and quantitative statistical analysis, Where some statistical analytical methods were used, such as time series analysis, simple and multiple regression, One Way ANOVA test to determine the extent of variation in the investment value in different commodity sectors, the Duncan test used to test the multiple range to determine the extent of variation in the value of the rate of return on Investment in different commodity sectors, and the partial adjustment model of Nirulov was used to estimate the factors determining the targeted agricultural investment in the various
mathematical models after selecting the most suitable ones. The Klein model was also used to measure the efficiency of agricultural investment through the method of minimizing the small squares in two stages.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 898-910 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.29