Jan-March, 2021


A Cast Titanium Obturator Framework in Rehabilitation of Acquired Maxillary Defects

Emad Ahmed Awad, Magdy Mostafa M. Mostafa, Abdel Salam Kh. Ezzat, Khaled K. El-Din Amin and Hatem K. El-Din Amin.

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to study the effect of using a cast titanium framework that retain maxillary obturators on the periodontal condition of remaining teeth. Twelve patients with post-surgical maxillary defects were selected, and according to the type of metal framework of the intended maxillary obturator, the patients were categorized into two groups, six patients each. In group 1, patients received obturators, the metal framework of which was made of cobalt chromium alloy, while in group 2, patients received titanium metal framework obturators. Clinical as well as radiographic evaluations were carried out as evaluation tools. The results obtained from this study revealed insignificant effect of using cast titanium obturator framework on the periodontal condition of the remaining condition when compared to the conventional cast cobalt-chromium obturator framework.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-7 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.1


Pharmacological Properties and Health Benefits of Flaxseed: A Review

Fatimah A. Al-Saeed and Atef M. Al-Attar

ABSTRACT: Since ancient times, medicinal plants are recognized for their therapeutic effects. Medicinal plants continue to be of paramount importance until the present day. Recently, medicinal plants are gaining much interest due to their utilize for treating different diseases. Experimental scientific investigations on therapeutic roles of many plants have led to the discovery of new valuable drugs. Historically, plant varieties were used for many objectives such as foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Flax is among the oldest crop plants cultivated for its seed oil and fiber. Flax has become a popular functional food due to its high omega-3 fatty acid content as well as its dietary lignans and fiber. Flaxseed oil is a rich source of nutritive and bioactive compounds. Currently, flaxseed constituents, especially its oil, have gained attention in the area of pharmacological and biomedical research due to its health benefits. In this review, the pharmacological and health benefits properties of flaxseed were demonstrated according to the previous scientific data. Previous literatures indicated the effective role of flaxseed and its chemical constituents for the treatment of many diseases, which makes it as one of the most promising natural products for maintaining the health and integrity of the body's functions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 8-17 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.2


Using of Certain Biotic and Abiotic Inducers on Controlling Peanut Cercospora Leaf Spot

Mahmoud E.Y., Zeinab N. Hussien, Ibrahim M.M. and Heba Yousef

ABSTRACT: Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), early leaf spot (caused by Cercospora arachidicola) and late leaf spot (caused by Cercosporidium personatum) are the most important foliar diseases affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) throughout the world. Although, fungicide applications considered one of the important management strategies for controlling of CLS however, it causes hazards to human and animal health and increase environmental pollution, which makes the urgent need to find fungicides alternatives. In try to take this approach, the effectiveness of biotic inducers (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) and abiotic inducers (chitosan at 1, 2 & 3 mM and bion at 2,4 & 8 mM), were tested in field trials on incidence of CLS compared to commercial fungicide as a check treatment. All tested inducers significantly reduced diseases severity of CLS compared to non-treated control in the two successive seasons 2018 and 2019. Generally, chitosan at 3mM and followed by chitosan at 2 mM and P. fluorescens gave the highest effect on reducing of CLS. While, bion at 2 mM gave the highest value of disease severity compared with control treatment in the two successive seasons. Increasing the concentration of chemical inducers (Abiotic treatments) caused increase in their reducing efficiency of diseases severity. This study indicated that, there is a correlation between induced resistance and some biochemical changes in peanut leaf tissues. Among these biochemical changes, the increase of phenol contents (free, conjugate & total phenols) and oxidative enzyme activity (peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and catalase) as well as total free amino acids and percentage of crude protein. The obtained data clearly showed the ability of some inducers treatments to achieve efficacy close to the efficiency of commercial fungicide in reducing CLS in peanuts, which may encourage the use of these inducers as an alternative to fungicides.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-28 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.3


Modulatory Effects of Vitamin C in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in Male Albino Rats

Amin H.M.

ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of vitamin C in ameliorating the alterations in innate, adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by luminal administration in rats. Eighty-four male albino rats (160-180 g) were divided into four equal groups. The first, the control group, was injected daily and intraperitoneally (i.p) with saline solution (0.9 % NaCl) for 21 days. The second group was given a daily i.p injection of luminal (50mg/kg). The third group was orally and daily administered with vitamin C (50mg/kg). The last group was treated the same way as the second group plus an oral administration of VC (50mg/kg) after half an hour of luminal injection. Determination of the alterations in different immunological parameters took place after the first, the second and third weeks of luminal and vitamin C administration. It was found that administration of luminal increased significantly the total leucocyte count, the percentage of lymphocytes and the chemokinetic index of leukocytes. Also, the concentration of total immunoglobulin increased significantly at the second and third weeks of luminal intake. While, marked decrease was noticed in the neutrophils percentage, phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and immunoglobulin level at the first week of luminal intake. The chemotaxis activity of leucocytes towards luminal showed moderate response in all first week treated subgroups. The precipitation of antibodies against luminal antigen took place. The migration inhibition factor of leukocytes showed a marked decrease as a result of luminal intake at the third week. No significant changes were noticed in the current study concerning the percentages of monocytes, acidophils and basophils. Administration of vitamin C alone induced a mild increase in total leukocytes count, monocytes, neutrophils and basophils percentages and significant increase in phagocytic activity of leukocytes in vitro. On the other hand, the combined administration of vitamin C with luminal ameliorated some immunological alterations induced by luminal injection. Vitamin C apparently alleviated the total leukocyte count, the percentage of neutrophils, the values of phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and total immunoglobulin concentration compared to the corresponding control subgroups. The chemotaxis activity showed moderate response in the third week of luminal & vitamin C subgroup. In all luminal & vitamin C subgroups, precipitation of antibodies against luminal antigen was recorded. At the third week, all luminal, vitamin C and luminal & vitamin C subgroups revealed significant decrease in the migration inhibition factor of leukocytes versus the control subgroups. Conclusion: the current study revealed that administration of vitamin C along with luminal exerted immunomodulatory effects against luminal-induced alterations in the immune system and that it could partially affect innate, adaptive, humoral and cell mediated immune responses in male albino rats.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-42 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.4


Effect of Alkaline Pre-Treatment of Some Straws as a Rapid Composting Process on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity

Abd Elghany S.H., Esmaeil M.A. and A.A. Arafat

ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of composts prepared by base pretreatment for two types of straws (rice and corn straws) on some soil properties and sorghum crop yield (summer 2019) and their residual effect on barley crop (winter 2019/2020) at Bahtim Research Station, Agriculture Research Center, Kalubia Governorate. Both rice straw and corn straw incubated with 2% KOH for four weeks then at the end of incubation period each type of the incubated straw neutralized by sulphuric acid and citric acid separately to produced four different types of composts; composted rice straw neutralized by sulphuric acid (RS) composted rice straw neutralized by citric acid (RC), composted corn straw neutralized by sulphuric acid (CS) and composted corn straw neutralized by citric acid (CC). The four types of composts combined with soil in split plot design experiment under two nitrogen levels of (80 and 100 unit fed-1) to study their current and residual effects on each of soil properties, nutrient availability and yield of crops compared to control. The obtained results showed that a positive effect for all the different composted materials on soil chemical properties, nutrients availability and crops yield compared to control soil. The combination of different composted materials with soil decreased significantly the EC values followed the trend of (RC) > (CC) > (RS) > (CS) during the first season and with slight effect through the second season. Also, there was a slight decrease in pH values with (RC) which recorded the lowest one particularly during the first season. On the other hand, application of different types of compost to soil significantly increased the soil (OM %) during the both seasons compared to control. Moreover, available soil N, P and K increased significantly during the first season in the order (RC) > (CC) > (RS) > (CS) with slight impact during the second season compared to control. Compost of (RC) and (CC) gave the highest yield of Sorghum in the first season and Barley in the second season than each of (RS) and (CS) compared to control. Generally, the base pretreatment method for different rice straw contributed in decreasing incubation period of composting process and produced beneficial types of compost aid to increase soil productivity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 43-57 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.5


Genetic Diversity of Egyptian Barley Using Agro–Physiological Traits, Grain Quality and Molecular Markers

Samah A. Mariey, Eman N. Mohamed, Zeinab E. Ghareeb and Engy S.M.R. Abo Zaher

ABSTRACT: Assessment of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is one of the principal and important steps in plant breeding programs. In this study, field screening analysis was carried out in Sakha Agricultural research station during two growing seasons 2018/ 2019 and 2019/ 2020 to investigate the phenotypic diversity among 15 Egyptian barley cultivars using physiological, grain quality, grain yield and yieldassociated traits and to assess the genetic diversity by using Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) marker analysis. Analysis of variance of the traits showed high variability among all cultivars under study with respect to all agronomic and grain quality characteristic studied traits. Cluster analysis classified the cultivars in four groups and showed that genetic variation based on the all studied traits among the barley cultivars. Ten SRAP combination primers was used, the average percentage of polymorphic loci of the 67.9 % and the average band number amplified from each pair of primers was 6.5% bands, of which included 9.0 % polymorphic bands. Highest (PIC), was related to primer me6+em5 was (0.94) indicating that this primer is highly informative. The dendrogram of SRAP markers had clustered all the Egyptian cultivars into four groups each group include the most closed cultivars. The results of the present study showed that there were high genetic information differences among Egyptian barley cultivars which offered new information about the genetics relationships between Egyptian barley cultivars which they are useful for cultivar identification and for their utilization in further barley programs for environments stress.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 58-71 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.6


Palynofacies analysis and organic geochemical characterization influence on the hydrocarbon generation of the subsurface Devonian rocks in Siwa Basin, north Western Desert, Egypt

Heba A. Abdelrazak, Atef M. Hosny, Ahmed A. Orabi and Tarek F. Mostafa

ABSTRACT: The Devonian sediments in the Western Desert of Egypt are promising source for hydrocarbons. Productive samples from the Devonian succession in Sifa-1 well were examined in this study. Distribution of the liptinite content of hydrogen rich organic matters from these sediments is investigated. Study of the liptinite depended on observations from both incident and transmitted light microscopical modes. There are a diverse and abundant liptinite macerals in the studied sediments that include both terrigenous and marine organic matters. The palynological investigations include statistical analysis of the miospores assemblages and palynofacies categories in addition to calculation of the sedimentation rates. These analyses signify four miospores biotopes and three palynofacies biotopes. These biotopes assess the ramps of paleoclimatological and paleoenvironmental changes during the sedimentation and used to define a model of the liptinite distribution in the Devonian. The model includes two phases that witnessed essential changes in the basinal dynamics in climate, sea level and sedimentation rates. The redox conditions were confirmed by inorganic geochemical analysis of trace elements. The high oxygen level affected both the quantity and quality of organic and greatly reduced the preservation of the amorphous organic matters. The quality of the organic matters ranges between kerogen type II/III and kerogen type III that are supported by organic elemental and pyrolysis gas chromatography analysis. The sediment generated hydrocarbons with consideration that the whole Devonian succession is in oil window as observed from the miospore thermal coloration index.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 72-88 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.7


Investigation of Microtextures on the Surface of Mesozoic Quartz Grains to Study the Prevailing Paleoenvironmenal Conditions on Silica Sand, Elwadi Elgedid, Western Desert, Egypt

Ramag Ahmed Osman

ABSTRACT: Microtextures recorded on quartz sand grain surfaces provide evidence of past environment. Environmental processes, such as transport by fluvial, eolian and mass wasting create unique microtextures on sand grain surfaces that can be observed under high magnification with a scanning electron microscope. These microtextures and their proportions infer to the environmental conditions which sediments have been exposed. Microtextural evidence also allows inferences about the history of sediments of unknown origin. This study determines the qualitative microtextural fingerprint of quartz sand grains deposited in Elwadi Elgedid, and compares that fingerprint to the fingerprints sediments of uncertain genesis, Aeolian, fluvial, mass-wasting, and other processes all create combinations of microtextures on quartz sand grain surfaces that are unique in the types. These combinations of microtextures record the paleoenvironmental history of the study area from which the grains were derived; the various forms of fractures and post-fracture surface alterations found on quartz sand grain surfaces should therefore provide useful evidence of climate and other environmental aspects of the sand grain’s history. Variations in quartz surface textures were detected due to the texture created by mechanical processes was predominating. Abundant abrasion features like V-shaped pits, and linear and curved grooves usually give evidence of transport in a fluvial medium. On levels with intensive reworking and redeposition preliminary relief of grains was smoothed and obliterated. The diagnostic dissolution features were more, where intercalation of dolomites and siliciclastic rocks is common. Possible chemical etching in quartz was observed and fluid effects were responsible for barite precipitation as inclusion in quartz grain. The variability helps to clarify the history of basin evolution and to distinguish different conditions in deposition.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 89-96 ] PDF DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.8


Development and Validation of Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in Fish by using LC-MSMS

Lamia Ryad

ABSTRACT: A sensitive method for the determination, confirmation and validation of the sum of malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG) and sum of crystal violet (CV) and leucocrystal violet in fish muscle has been developed. It is based on liquid–liquid extraction by acetonitrile followed by liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MSMS) with electrospray ion source (ESI) in positive mode for determination of (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, and leuco crystal violet). The method is simple, fast and inexpensive for simultaneous analysis of selected compounds. Fish samples were homogenated with shaker in mixture of acetonitrile, Mcllvain buffer, TMPD and p-TSA then followed by centrifugation; the supernatant was evaporated then reconstituted by acetonitrile perchloric acid. Quantitation and confirmation of each compound was done by iquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positi ve -ion mode, the mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Two different MRM are used for confirmation. In compliance with Decision 2002/657/EC, which lays down guidelines and procedures for validating methods, validation of the method was carried out. The following parameters were determined: limit of detection (CCa), detection capability (CCβ), linearity, precision, precision, selectivity, specificity and effect of the matrix. The decision limits (CCα) for MG, LMG, CV and LCV were 1.2μg/kg. The respective detection capabilities (CCβ) were 1.5, 1.4, 1.4 and 1.3μg/kg. Typical recoveries (intermediate precision) in fish samples, for MG, CV, LMG and LCV for 2.0 mg/kg level fortified samples using the optimized procedure were in the range 84%, 87%, 88% and 100%, respectively. The findings indicate the suitability of the method for detecting MG, CV and their metabolites (LMG and LCV) simultaneously in fish.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 97-103 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.9